N e w s l e t t e r

Volume IV, Issue 1, June 1997

Contents

HOW TO SUCCEED IN SCIENCE?

        Kenneth A Crutcher

(extracted from Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 1991; 34:213-218 - Posted by t.nguyen@garvan.unsw.edu.au (Tuan V Nguyen))

It seems that many of our scientists have not received basic training on how to succeed in science - for example, obtaining grants, receiving peer recognition, having a biography that is longer than any particular publication listed in it etc. In order to correct this deficiency, the following guidelines are presented. Of course, there will always be the occasional black sheep who decides to embark on an entirely original course of work or chooses to forgo the rewards of being recognised as a successful scientist, in which case these guidelines do not apply. But, attention to the principles set forth below should provide a solid framework for most aspiring scientists to build on.

1. RELAX! WE ARE ONLY BETWEEN PARADIGM AND SHIFTS ANYHOW

Much of the stress and anxiety that have traditionally been associated with the conduct of science are now relieved by the tremendous insight provided by Thomas Kuhn. Since the vast majority of scientists are currently doing "normal" science, akin to treading theoretical water, and true advances must await the next shift in paradigms, most of us can relax as we realise that our work is unlikely to have any lasting influence. Of course, there may be some who seek to contribute to, or actually precipitate, a shift in paradigms, and it is unlikely that they can be stopped, but the rest of us should recognised that the clarification of an existing paradigm is necessary for subsequent scientific revolutions. Just imagine how difficult science would be if every investigator made some fundamental contribution that involved a shift in paradigm or forced us to analyse our basic assumptions about the area in which we work.

2. BECOME FAMOUS

Once you have the appropriate relaxed attitude about the importance of your own work (see 1), it becomes much easier to focus on the business of being a scientist. In this regard, being famous ranks second only to being relaxed. Unfortunately, many scientists have overlooked the importance of being famous in order to succeed, especially in the areas of obtaining grants and getting to travel (see 5 below). And becoming famous is really much less difficult than most realise. There are several options. One of the quickest and surest is to work with someone who is already famous. This will guarantee a certain amount of secondary fame that can be used as a foundation for establishing your own fame. Another method is to organise a symposium on a "hot" topic and invite the most famous people in the field, including the famous person with whom you work, to participate. Then list yourself on the same program. This technique has had quire marvellous results for countless number of now-famous scientists. Another effective option is to publish a paper or abstract every week in your selected area (see 3). This method takes more effort, but with attention to the following guideline the work can be minimised and the results guaranteed to make you a recognised expert in any particular field.

3. PUBLISH OFTEN (PREFERABLY ABSTRACTS)

It is common knowledge that modern scientist do not have time to read the rapidly growing literature in their field and, with the realisation that most research will have no lasting effect (see 1), it is clear that to do so would be a waste of time. Therefore, take advantage of the fact that most of your peers are going ti be influenced by your work primarily through name recognition. The same principle that advertising agencies use, namely, repeated exposure, is vital to success in science as well. The more times your name is seen in print, the more influence you will have and the more famous you will be (see 2). Of course, the choice of medium is critical; ideally, you should publish as often as possible in newspapers and popular magazines, but scientific journals can have their place as well. You should try to average one page or abstract every week, and your name should appear last. The more co-authors you have, the better, because everyone knows that the last author is really the one who counts, and it shows that you must already be famous to have so many other scientists working with you. Some will argue that each publication should contain new information, but, again, this view does not take into account the lessons learned from Madison Avenue. In fact, the more often you say the same thing, the more likely your chances of being remembered. Once the same set of data have been published several times, with no more slight variations, they begin to take on greater credibility, both in the minds of your colleagues and in your own mind. In addition, the particular area that you work in, even if it had formerly been considered obscure and uninteresting, take on increasing importance each time it appears in print.

Of course, the format can play a vital role in your ultimate success. The many advantages derived from publishing your work is abstract form, for example, are often overlooked. First, it provides the opportunity to travel (see 5). Second, it is rarely reviewed (and we all have horror stories to tell about critical reviews we have received on even our best papers). Third, and most important, it provides a published document that can either be cited in establishing precedence for an observation, if it turns out to be correct or important (or both!), or can just as easily be left uncited if ultimately found to be in error.

In some cases, particularly once you have gained some experiences, it is possible to publish several abstract at one time, each dealing with a slight variation on the same theme. Some scientific societies permit you to submit only one abstract with yourself listed as first author. But this restriction is easily overcome. Most scientists, for example, are already aware of potential co-authors from the ranks of students and associates, but often overlooked are administrators and members of the custodial staff, some of whom would be happy to see their names in print. With a little bit of planning you can have several abstracts published simultaneously, one with your name first and the rest with your name last listed . Legend has it that one scientist was able to fill two entire sessions at a single meeting with abstracts solely from his laboratory.

4. PUBLISH ONLY WHAT CAN NOT BE REFUTED (AT LEAST IN YOUR LIFETIME)

Many young scientists sadly misinterpret this principle to mean that one should publish careful, well-thought-out papers. On the contrary, much time is and effort can be saved by publishing results without any attention to their significance or relevance at all. Odds are, no one is going to read the paper anyway (see 3), so do not waste your valuable time analysing the results, More important, as long as you restrict your discussion to what you saw, with enough methodological differences from previous work so that any discrepancies can be explained if the need arises, you will never be found in error, particularly if you refrain from discussing the potential significance of the results. The simplest way to avoid any embarrassment is to publish new and improved techniques. The publication of new methods rarely leads you into strong theoretical disputes with your colleagues but still permits lively discussions about whether the pH was optimal. Even better, develop a desirable reagent that your colleagues can use and then distribute it to them with the modest request that you be included as an author on any paper that mentions the reagent. You will be amazed at how quickly your biography lengthens and your fame correspondingly increases. If some reason you feel compelled to speculate on your data in print, be sure to limit your speculation to ideas that can not be tested in your lifetime, if at all.

5. PRESENT YOUR WORK AT EVERY OPPORTUNITY

One of the many benefits of doing science is the opportunity to travel. Of course, the more famous you are, the more opportunities you will have to travel. Conversely, the more times you are seen in public, the more famous you will become. In addition, most conferences provide the opportunity to publish at least one abstract (see 3). When presenting your work, be sure to use attractive slides that are not cluttered with detail. One helpful hint: leave off any statistical information, especially for graphical data, since it often detracts from the main point of the slide. Contrary to the situation for your published work, feel free to speculate during your presentation. In fact, don't be constrained by the data. Remember that your effect will be much greater if you make sweeping statements and generalisations unrestrained by the facts or by what you have published in the abstract. If anyone seriously questions a statement you have made or presents contradictory results, you can avoid any embarrassment for yourself by pointing out that he or she did not use the optimal pH.

Presentations are necessary, but not sufficient, for success in science. When you have been invited to participate at a meeting, be sure to keep track of who invited you so that you will be able to invite the same individuals to present at the next conference you organise. Eventually, you will find that there enough of you to invite each other to several conferences during the year, and, if you are really successful, you may even decide to establish own society consisting of only the most successful scientists (mainly those who are invited to several conferences during the year).

6. SUBMIT A GRANT PROPOSAL ONLY ON WORK YOU HAVE ALREADY DONE

This would hardly seem to require stating, but there are still a number of scientists, especially unseasoned rookies, who actually propose experiments that have not yet been conducted. Most reviewers of grant applications have finally weeded out the ones who continually propose novel work, but there are still some who do not quite understand that the surest bet is on a horse that has already won. Naturally, you need to be a little careful in timing the publication of the proposed work so that it does not actually appear in print before your grant is reviewed (except, of course, in multiple abstract form). The rookie scientist may encounter the dilemma of not having been able to do the experiments before obtaining grant support. The most common solution is to propose work similar to what you have already done working with someone who is famous. If that option is not available, then you may be forced to propose work that is original. If so, be sure that the research is only a slight variation of work that someone else has already done. This assures the reviewers that your particular experiments fall within the existing paradigm. A good example would be finding the optimal pH at which to run a new and improved technique.

7. DO NOT WASTE YOUR TIME TEACHING

Remember that your goal is to succeed in science. Although a certain amount of teaching can be beneficial, in that it gives you some exposure to students who may decide to work for you (and provide potential authors for your many abstracts), it is terribly time- consuming to make more than cameo appearances. There will be some pressure by other faculty and your chairman to contribute to the teaching program, especially before you receive tenure, but this pressure can be relieved to some extent by the way in which you teach. For example, always present your material in a fashion that obscures any relevance to matters that concern the students. In medical teaching this has become common practice. Another effective approach is to provide details of the methods that you use in the laboratory, especially emphasising the importance of optimal pH. Usually students are so overwhelmed by the volume of information that they will have difficulty asking intelligent questions. The advantage of this is obvious. Eventually, you will find less teaching is required of you, and you will have more time to spend writing abstracts and going to conferences.

8. GO COMMERCIAL

Fame is nice but it is so much enjoyable when accompanied by wealth. The traditional role of scientist has not always been as lucrative as other careers. This is changing. One of the very exciting options in science is to identify potential commercial applications of the work you do and market them. Numerous scientists are discovering the monetary advantages of forming their own companies with initial research and development funds provided by the federal government through grants and contracts. The beauty of this system is that there is very little risk. If the commercial application does not generate profit, you can always apply for another grant to keep going. On the other hand, if you are able to capitalise on your scientific successes and establish a profitable company, you can use your academic affiliations, and your positions on editorial review boards and study sections, to keep abreast of the hottest developments in the field to feed into your company. The comparative advantage this gives you should be obvious.

SUMMARY

Adherence to these principles will not guarantee success, but the testimony of many famous scientists supports the hypothesis that these guidelines can significantly (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon unpaired X-test run at pH 5.5) increase your chances of achieving recognition, acquiring wealth, and ultimately being known as a successful scientist. At the very least, they should prevent you from falling too far outside the boundaries of "normal" science where you could easily be branded for life as a troublemaker or heretic.

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US CITIZENSHIP TEST

[vacets-gen] - Mesg from "Thanh-Quoc Tran" <trantq@nortel.ca>

Ca'c ba.n me^'n,

In order to help our poor Vietnamese to prepare for their US Citizenship Exam, I have attempted to translate it into Vietnamese with simple Vietnamese-based phonetic symbols. Please distribute this document to whoever you think need it. I'll appreciate your help very much! I also have copy of this document in MS Word 6.0 with VPS time font. If you need this file or the hard copy, please let me know.

Tha^n a'i, Tha.nh Email: trantq@nt.com or thanhqtran@juno.com WP: (408) 565-5117 HP: (408) 258-5495 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Study Questions for the INS English/Civics Exam [x-to+'-ddi ku-e't-x-cha^n-z fo ddo+` ai-en-e't-x in-go+`-li-s / xi'-vi'c i'c-zem] Ca^u Ho?i Luye^.n Thi Anh Va(n / Ha`nh Cha'nh cu?a So+? Di Tru'

Translator: Thanh Q. Tran - Version: 1.0 - Date: 6 Jan 97. Ngu+o+`i di.ch: Tra^`n Q. Tha.nh - Ba?n: 1.0 - Nga`y: 6 tha'ng 1 na(m 97.

*** Note: phonetic symbols "s" and "x" are pronounced as with the Southerners. Phonetic symbols are enclosed in the square brackets. *** Xin chu' y': ca'c da^'u phie^n a^m "s" va` "x" ddu+o+.c du`ng theo lo^'i pha't a^m cu?a ngu+o+`i mie^`n Nam. Phie^n a^m ddu+o+.c dde^? trong ngoa(.c vuo^ng [ ].

1. What are the colors of our flag? (Red, white and blue) [quo't a ddo+` co+'-lo+ o-v ao fo+`-la('c] [re't, quai-t en bo+`-lu] 1. Ca'c ma`u cu?a co+` chu'ng ta la` gi` ? (DDo?, tra('ng va` xanh du+o+ng)

2. How many stars are there on our flag? (50) [hao me'-ni x-ta-z a dde on ao fo+`-la('c] 2. Co' bao nhie^u ngo^i sao tre^n co+` chu'ng ta ? (50)

3. What color are the stars on our flag? (White) [quo't co+'-lo+ a ddo+` x-ta-z on ao fo+`-la('c] [quai-t] 3. Ca'c ngo^i sao tre^n co+` chu'ng ta co' ma`u gi` ? (Tra('ng)

4. What do the stars on the flag mean? (One for each state in the Union) [quo't ddu ddo+` x-ta-z on ddo+` fo+`-la('c min] [quon fo i'ch x-te^'t in ddo+` du'-ni-o+n] 4. Ca'c ngo^i sao tre^n co+` chu'ng ta co' nghi~a gi` ? (Mo^.t sao cho mo^~i tie^?u bang trong Lie^n Bang)

5. How many stripes are there on the flag? (13) [hao me'-ni x-trai-p a dde on ddo+` fo+`-la('c] 5. Co' bao nhie^u so.c tre^n la' co+` ? (13)

6. What color are the stripes? (Red) [quo't co+'-lo+ a ddo+` x-trai-px] [re't] 6. Ca'c so.c co' ma`u gi` ? (DDo?)

7. What do the stripes on the flag mean? (They represent the original 13 states) [quo't ddu ddo+` x-trai-px on ddo+` fo+`-la('c min] [dde^-i re'-po+`-ri-zen ddo+` o-ri'-ji-no^` tho+-thi'n x-te^'t-x] 7. Ca'c so.c co' nghi~a gi` ? (Chu'ng tu+o+.ng tru+ng cho 13 tie^?u bang dda^`u tie^n)

8. How many states are there in the Union? (50) [hao me'ni x-te^'t-x a dde in ddo+` du'-ni-o+n] 8. Co' bao nhie^u tie^?u bang trong Lie^n Bang ? (50)

9. What is the 4th of July? (Independence Day) [quo't i-z ddo+` fo-tho+ o-v ju-la'i] [i'n-ddi-pe'n-ddo+n-x dde^-i] 9. Nga`y 4 tha'ng 7 la` gi` ? (Nga`y le^~ DDo^.c La^.p)

10. What is the date of Independence Day? (July 4th) [quo't i-z ddo+` dde^'t o-v i'n-ddi-pe'n-ddo+n-x dde^-i] [ju-la'i fo-tho+] 10. Nga`y le^~ DDo^.c La^.p la` nga`y na`o ? (4 tha'ng ba?y)

11. Independence from whom? (England) [i'n-ddi-pe'n-ddo+n-x fo+`-ro`m hum] [i'nh-go+`-la^n] 11. DDo^.c La^.p tu+` ai ? (Anh Quo^'c)

12. What country did we fight during the Revolutionary War? (England) [quo't kha^n-tri ddi't qui fai-t ddiu-rinh ddo+` re'-vo^-li'u-sa^n-ne-ri quo] [i'nh-go+`-la^n] 12. Chu'ng ta dda~ chie^'n dda^'u vo+'i xu+' na`o trong Chie^'n Tranh Ca'ch Ma.ng ? (Anh Quo^'c)

13. Who was the first President of the United States? (George Washington) [hu quo-z ddo+` fo+'t-x po+`-re'-zi-dda^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n] 13. Ai la` To^?ng Tho^'ng dda^`u tie^n cu?a nu+o+'c My~ ? (George Washington [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n])

14. Who elects the President of the United States? (The electoral college) [hu i-le'c ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [ddo+` i-le'c-to-ro^` co'-li-j] 14. Ai ba^`u To^?ng Tho^'ng nu+o+'c My~ ? (Cu+? tri ddoa`n)

15. Who becomes President of the United States if the President should die? (Vice-President) [hu bi-kha^m-z po+`-re'-zi-dda^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x i'p ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n su't ddai] 15. Ai tro+? tha`nh To^?ng Tho^'ng nu+o+'c My~ ne^'u To^?ng Tho^'ng che^'t ? (Pho' To^?ng Tho^'ng)

16. For how long do we elect the President? (Four years) [fo hao long ddu qui i-le'c ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] [fo dia-z] 16. Chu'ng ta ba^`u cu+? To^?ng Tho^'ng nhie^.m ky` bao la^u ?

17. What is the Constitution? (The supreme law of the land) [quo't i-z ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n] [ddo+` siu-po+`-rim lo o-v ddo+` len] 17. Hie^'n Pha'p la` gi` ? (Lua^.t to^'i cao cu?a dda^'t nu+o+'c)

18. Can the Constitution be changed? (Yes) [Khen ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n bi chen-j] [de't-x] 18. Hie^'n Pha'p co' the^? ddu+o+.c thay ddo^?i kho^ng ? (Co')

19. What do we call a change to the Constitution? (Amendments) [quo't ddu qui kho a chen-j tu ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n] [o+-me'n-ma^n-z] 19. Chu'ng ta go.i su+. thay ddo^?i Hie^'n Pha'p la` gi` ? (Ca'c Tu Chi'nh)

20. How many changes or amendments are there to the Constitution? (27) [hao me'-ni chen-j o o+-me'n-ma^n-z a dde tu ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n] 20. Co' bao nhie^u thay ddo^?i hay tu chi'nh cho Hie^'n Pha'p ? (27)

21. How many branches are there in our government? (3) [hao me'-ni bo+`-ren-chi-z a dde in ao go+-vo+n-ma^`n] [tri] 21. Co' bao nhie^u nga`nh trong chi'nh quye^`n cu?a chu'ng ta ? (3)

22. What are the three branches of our government? (Legislative, Executive and Judiciary) [quo't a ddo+` tri bo+`-ren-chi-z o-v ao go+-vo+n-ma^`n] [le-ji't-x-lo+-tiu i'c-ze'-kiu-tiu en ju-ddi'-si-e-ri] 22. Ba nga`nh cu?a chi'nh quye^`n la` gi` ? (La^.p pha'p, Ha`nh pha'p va` Tu+ pha'p)

23. What is the legislative branch of our government? (Congress) [quo't i-z ddo+` le-ji't-x-lo+-tiu bo+`-ren-cho+ o-v ao go+-vo+n-ma^`n] [co^ng-go+`-re't-x] 23. Nga`nh La^.p pha'p cu?a chi'nh quye^`n la` gi` ? (Quo^'c Ho^.i)

24. Who makes laws in the United States? (Congress) [hu me^'t-co+-x lo-z in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [co^ng-go+`-re't-x] 24. Ai la`m lua^.t o+? nu+o+'c My~ ? (Quo^'c Ho^.i)

25. What is Congress? (The Senate and the House of Representatives) [quo't i-z co^ng-go+`-re't-x] [ddo+` xe'-ne^'t en ddo+` hao-x o-v re-po+`-ri-ze'n-to+-tiu] 25. Quo^'c Ho^.i la` gi` ? (Thu+o+.ng Nghi. Vie^.n va` Ha. Nghi. Vie^.n)

26. What are the duties of Congress? (To make laws) [quo't a ddo+` ddiu-ti-z o-v co^ng-go+`-re't-x] [tu me^'t-co+ lo] 26. Ca'c nhie^.m vu. cu?a Quo^'c Ho^.i la` gi` (La`m ca'c lua^.t)

27. Who elects Congress? (The people) [hu i-le'c-x co^ng-go+`-re't-x] [ddo+` pi'-po^`] 27. Ai ba^`u ra Quo^'c Ho^.i ? (Da^n chu'ng)

28. How many senators are there in Congress? (100) [hao me'-ni xe'-no+-to+-z a dde in co^ng-go+`-re't-x] [quon ha^n-ddo+-ri.t] 28. Co' bao nhie^u thu+o+.ng nghi. si~ trong Quo^'c Ho^.i ? (100)

29. For how long do we elect each senator? (6 years) [fo hao long ddu qui i-le'c i'ch xe'-no+-to+] [xi't-x dia-z] 29. Chu'ng ta ba^`u mo^~i thu+o+.ng nghi. si~ nhie^.m ky` bao la^u ?

30. How many representatives are there in Congress? (435) [[hao me'-ni re-pri-ze'n-to+-tiu a dde in co^ng-go+`-re't-x] [fo ha^n-ddo+-ri.t en tho+'-thi` fai-v] 30. Co' bao nhie^u ha. nghi. si~ trong Quo^'c Ho^.i ? (435)

31. For how long do we elect the representatives? (2 years) [fo hao long ddu qui i-le'c ddo+` re-po+`-ri-ze'n-to+-tiu] [tu dia-z] 31. Chu'ng ta ba^`u ca'c ha. nghi. si~ nhie^.m ky` bao la^u ?

32. What is the executive branch of our government? (The President, Vice-President and the Cabinet) [quo't i-z ddo+` i'c-ze'-kiu-tiu bo+`-ren-cho+ o-v ao go+-vo+n-ma^`n] [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n, vai-x po+`-re'-zi-dda^n en ddo+` ca'-bo+-ni't] 32. Nga`nh ha`nh pha'p cu?a chi'nh quye^`n la` gi` ? (To^?ng Tho^'ng, Pho' To^?ng Tho^'ng va` No^.i Ca'c)

33. What is the judiciary branch of our government? (The Supreme Court) [quo't i-z ddo+` ju-ddi'-si-e-ry bo+`-ren-cho+ o-v ao go+-vo+n-ma^`n] [ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t] 33. Nga`nh tu+ pha'p cu?a chi'nh quye^`n la` gi` ? (To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n)

34. What are the duties of the Supreme Court? (To interpret laws) [quo't a ddo+` ddiu-ti-z o-v ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t] [tu in-to+-po+`-ri't lo-z] 34. Ca'c nhie^.m vu. cu?a To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n la` gi` ? (Gia?i thi'ch ca'c lua^.t)

35. What is the supreme law of the United States? (The Constitution) [quo't i-z ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim lo-z o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n] 35. Lua^.t to^'i cao cu?a nu+o+'c My~ la` gi` ? (Hie^'n Pha'p)

36. What is the Bill of Rights? (The first 10 amendments of the Constitution) [quo't i-z ddo+` biu o-v rai-t-x] [ddo+` fo+.t then o+`-me'n-ma^n o-v ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n] 36. Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n Nha^n Quye^`n la` gi` ? (10 Tu Chi'nh Hie^'n Pha'p dda^`u tie^n)

37. Who becomes President of the United States if the President and the Vice President should die? (Speaker of the House of Representatives) [hu bi-kha^m po+`-re'-zi-dda^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x i'p ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n en ddo+` vai-x po+`-re'-zi-dda^n su't ddai] [x-pi't-co+ o-v ddo+` hao-x o-v re-po+`-ri-ze'n-to+-tiu] 37. Ai tro+? tha`nh To^?ng Tho^'ng ne^'u To^?ng Tho^'ng va` Pho' To^?ng Tho^'ng che^'t ? (Chu? Ti.ch Ha. Nghi. Vie^.n)

38. Which countries were our enemies during World War II? (Germany, Italy and Japan) [qui'ch kha^n-tri-z quo+ ao e'n-no+-mi-z ddiu-rinh quo+.t quo tu] [jo+.t-mo+-ni, i'-ta-li en jo+-pe'n] 38. Ca'c xu+' na`o la` nhu+~ng ke? thu` cu?a chu'ng ta trong DDe^. Nhi. The^' Chie^'n ? (DDu+'c, Y' va` Nha^.t)

39. What are the 49th and 50th states of the Union? (Hawaii and Alaska) [quo't a ddo+` fo-thi nai-tho+ en fi'p-thi-tho+ o-v ddo+` du'-ni-o+n] [ha-quai-i en a-la't-x-ca] 39. Ca'c tie^?u bang thu+' 49 va` 50 cu?a Lie^n Bang la` gi` (Hawaii [ha-quai-i] va` Alaska [a-la't-x-ca]

40. How many terms can a President serve? (2) [hao me'-ni to+m-z khen o+ po+`-re'-zi-dda^n xo+-v] [tu] 40. Mo^.t To^?ng Tho^'ng co' the^? phu.c vu. bao nhie^u nhie^.m ky` ? (2)

41. Who was Martin Luther King, Jr.? (A civil rights leader) [hu quo-z ma.c-tin lu'-tho+ kinh, ju'-ni-o+] [o+ xi'-vo^` rai-t-x li't-ddo+] 41. Ai la` Martin Luther King [ma.t-tin lu-to+ kinh], Jr.[ju-ni-o+] ? (mo^.t la?nh tu. da^n quye^`n)

42. According to the Contitution, a person must meet certain requirements in order to be eligible to become President. Name one of these requirements. (Must be a natural born citizen of the United States; must be at least 35 years old by the time he/she will serve; must have lived in the United States at least 14 years) [o+-co.t-ddinh tu ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n, o+` po+.t-xa^n mo+'t-x mi't xo+.t-ta^n ri-ku-ai-ma^n-z in o.t-ddo+ tu bi i-li'-jo+-bo^` tu bi-kha^m po+`-re'-zi-dda^n. Ne^m quon o-v ddi-z ri-ku-ai-ma^n-z] [mo+'t-x bi o+ na'-cho+-ro^` bo.t xi'-ti-za^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x; mo+'t-x bi a('t li't-x tho+-thi fai-v dia-z o^n bai ddo+` thai hi/si quiu so+-v; mo+'t-x heo-v liu-v in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x a('t li't-x fo-thin dia-z] 42. Theo Hie^'n Pha'p, mo^.t ngu+o+`i pha?i ho^.i ddu? mo^.t so^' ca'c ddie^`u kie^.n dde^? u+'ng cu+? To^?ng Tho^'ng . Ke^? ra mo^.t trong ca'c ddie^`u kie^.n na^`y . (Pha?i la` co^ng da^n My~ sinh trong ba?n xu+'; pha?i to^'i thie^?u 35 tuo^?i ti'nh dde^'n nga`y se~ phu.c vu.; pha?i so^'ng trong nu+o+'c My~ to^'i thie^?u 14 na(m )

43. Why are there 100 Senators in the Senate? (2 from each state) [quai a dde quon ha^n-ddo+-ri.t xe'-no+-to+-z in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [tu fo+`-ro`m i'ch x-te^'t] 43. Ta.i sao co' 100 Thu+o+.ng nghi. si~ trong Thu+o+.ng nghi. vie^.n ? (2 tu+` mo^~i tie^?u bang)

44. Who selects the Supreme Court Justices? (Appointed by the President) [hu xi-le'c-x ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t jo+'t-ti't-xi-z] [o+`-poi-ti.t bai ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] 44. Ai cho.n lu+.a ca'c Cha'nh A'n To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n ? (Bo^? nhie^.m bo+?i To^?ng Tho^'ng)

45. How many Supreme Court Justices are there? (9) [hao me'-ni xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t jo+'t-ti't-xi-z a dde] [nai-n] 45. Co' bao nhie^u Cha'nh A'n To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n ? (9)

46. Why did the Pilgrims come to America? (For religious freedom) [quai ddi't ddo+` piu-go+`-rim-z kha^m tu o+`-me'-ri-ca] [fo ri-li'-ji-o+.t-x fo+`-ri'-ddo+`m] 46. Ta.i sao nhu+~ng ngu+o+`i Ha`nh Hu+o+ng to+'i xu+' My~ ? (Vi` tu+. do ti'n ngu+o+~ng)

47. What is the head executive of state called? (Governor) [quo't i-z ddo+` he't i'c-ze'-kiu-tiu o-v x-te^'t kho] [go+'-vo+-no+] 47. Ngu+o+`i ca^`m dda^`u ha`nh pha'p cu?a tie^?u bang go.i la` gi` ? (Tho^'ng ddo^'c)

48. What is the head executive of a city called? (Mayor) [quo't i-z ddo+` he't i'c-ze'-kiu-tiu o-v o+ xi-ti kho] [me^-do+] 48. Ngu+o+`i ca^`m dda^`u ha`nh pha'p cu?a mo^.t thi. xa~ go.i la` gi` ? (Thi. tru+o+?ng)

49. What holiday was celebrated for the first time by the American colonists? (Thanksgiving) [quo't ho'-lo+-dde^ quo-z xe'-lo+-bo+`-re^'t-ti't fo ddo+` fo+.t-x thai-m bai ddi` o+-me'-ri-ca^n kho'-lo+`-ni't-x] [then-x-ghiu-vinh] 49. Nga`y le^~ na`o ddu+o+.c cu+? ha`nh dda^`u tie^n bo+?i thuo^.c ddi.a My~ ? (Le^~ Ta. o+n)

50. Who was the main writer of the Declaration of Independence? (Thomas Jefferson) [hu quo-z ddo+` me^n rai-to+ o-v ddo+` dde-co+`-lo+-re^'-sa^n o-v in-ddi`-pe'n-dda^n-x] [tho^-mo+.t-x je'p-fo+-xa^n] 50. Ai la` soa.n gia? chi'nh cu?a Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n DDo^.c La^.p ? (Thomas Jefferson [tho^-mo+.t-x je'p-fo+-xa^n])

51. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted? (July 4, 1776) [quen quo-z ddo+` dde'-co+`-lo+-re^'-sa^n o-v in-ddi`-pe'n-dda^n-x o+`-ddo'p-ti't] [ju-la'i fo, xe'-va^`n-thin xe'-va^`n-thi` xi'c] 51. Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n DDo^.c La^.p ddu+o+.c cha^'p nha^.n bao gio+` ? (nga`y 4 tha'ng 7 na(m 1776)

52. What is the basic belief of the Declaration of Independence? (That all people are created equal) [quo't i-z ddo+` be^-xi'c bo+-li'p o-v ddo+` dde-co+`-lo+-re^'-sa^n o-v in-ddi`-pe'n-dda^n-x] [dda't o pi'-po^` a co+`-ri-e^'t-ti't i'-ku-o^`] 52. Su+. tin tu+o+?ng ca(n ba?n cu?a Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n DDo^.c La^.p la` gi` ? (Mo.i ngu+o+`i sinh ra trong bi`nh dda(?ng )

53. What is the national anthem of the United States? (The Star-Spangled Banner) [quo't i-z ddo+` na'-so^`-no^` e'n-tho+`m o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [ddo+` x-ta-xpe'n-go^` be'n-no+] 53. Quo^'c ca nu+o+'c My~ la` gi` ? (Star-Spangled Banner [x-ta-xpe'n-go^` be'n-no+] Co+` Sao)

54. What is the minimum voting age in the United States? (18) [quo't i-z ddo+` mi'-ni-mum vo^'t-tinh e^-j in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [e^'t-thin] 54. Tuo^?i to^'i thie^?u ddi ba^`u o+? nu+o+'c My~ la` bao nhie^u ? (18)

55. Who signs a bill into law? (The President) [hu xai-z o+ biu in-tu lo] [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] 55. Ai ky' du+. lua^.t dde^? tro+? tha`nh lua^.t ? (To^?ng Tho^'ng)

56. What is the highest court in the United States? (The Supreme Court) [quo't i-z ddo+` hai-e't-x kho.t in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t] 56. To`a a'n to^'i cao o+? nu+o+'c My~ la` gi` ? (To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n)

57. Who was President during the Civil War? (Abraham Lincoln) [hu quo-z ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n ddiu-rinh ddo+` xi'-vo^` quo] [e^-bo+`-ro+-hem li'n-ca^n] 57. Ai la` To^?ng Tho^'ng trong tho+`i No^.i Chie^'n (Abraham Lincoln [e^-bo+`-ro+-hem li'n-ca^n])

58. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? (Freed many slaves) [quo't ddi't ddo+` i-me'n-ci-pe^'-sa^n po+`-ro^`-co+`-lo+-me^'-sa^`n ddu] [fo+`-ri't me'-ni xo+`-le^-vz] 58. Su+. Tuye^n Bo^' Gia?i Pho'ng No^ Le^. dda~ la`m ddu+o+.c gi` ? (Gia?i pho'ng no^ le^.)

59. What special group advises the President? (The Cabinet) [quo't x-pe'-so^` go+`-ru'p a('t-vai-x ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] [ddo+` ca'-bo+-ni't] 59. Nho'm dda(.c bie^.t na`o co^' va^'n To^?ng Tho^'ng ? (No^.i Ca'c)

60. Which President is called the "Father of our country"? (George Washington) [qui'ch po+`-re'-zi-dda^n i-z kho ddo+` fa'-ddo+` o-v ao kha^n-tri] [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n] 60. To^?ng Tho^'ng na`o ddu+o+.c go.i la` "Cha cu?a nu+o+'c" ? (George Washington [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n])

61. Who helped the Pilgrims in America? (The American Indians -- Native Americans) [hu he'p ddo+` piu-go+`-rim-z in o+`-me'-ri-ca] [ddi` o+`-me'-ri-ca^n i'n-ddi-a^n-z -- ne^-tiu o+`-me'-ri-ca^n-z] 61. Ai dda~ giu'p ngu+o+`i Ha`nh Hu+o+ng o+? My~ ? (Ngu+o+`i Da DDo? -- Ngu+o+`i ba?n xu+' My~)

62. What is the name of the ship that brought the Pilgrims to America? (The Mayflower) [quo't i-z ddo+` ne^m o-v ddo+` si'p dda't bo+`-ro't ddo+` piu-go+`-rim tu o+`-me'-ri-ca] [ddo+` me^-fo+`-lao-o+] 62. Te^n cu?a chie^'c ta`u dda~ cho+? ngu+o+`i Ha`nh Hu+o+ng to+'i My~ la` gi` ? (The Mayflower [ddo+` me^-fo+`-lao-o+])

63. What were the 13 original states of the U.S. called? (Colonies) [quo't quo+ ddo+` tho+-thi'n o-ri'-ji-no^` x-te^'t-x o-v ddo+` du e^'t-x kho] [kho'-lo+-ni-z] 63. 13 tie^?u bang dda^`u tie^n cu?a nu+o+'c My~ ddu+o+.c go.i la` gi` ? (Ca'c Xu+' Thuo^.c DDi.a)

64. Who has the power to declare war? (The Congress) [hu he-z ddo+` pao-o+ tu ddi-co+-le' quo] [ddo+` co^ng-go+`re't-x] 64. Ai co' quye^`n tuye^n chie^'n ? (Quo^'c Ho^.i)

65. What kind of government does the United States have? (A republic; a democracy) [quo't kai o-v go+-vo+n-ma^`n ddo+-z ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x heo-v] [o+` ri-po+'-bo+`-li'c; o+` ddi`-mo'-co+`-ro+-xi] 65. Nu+o+'c My~ co' chi'nh quye^`n theo the^? che^' na`o ? (Co^.ng Ho`a; Da^n chu?)

66. Which President freed the slaves? (Abraham Lincoln) [qui'ch po+`-re'-zi-dda^n fo+`-ri't ddo+` x-le^-vz] [e^-bo+`-ro+-hem li'n-ca^n] 66. To^?ng Tho^'ng na`o dda~ gia?i pho'ng no^ le^. ? (Abraham Lincoln [e^-bo+`-ro+-hem li'n-ca^n])

67. In what year was the Constitution written? (1787) [in quo't dia quo-z ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n ri't-to+n] [xe'-va^`n-thin e^'t-thi`-xe'-va^`n] 67. Hie^'n Pha'p dda~ ddu+o+.c vie^'t na(m na`o ? (1787)

68. What are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution called? (The Bill of Rights) [quo't a ddo+` fo+.t-x then o+`-me'n-ma^n-x tu ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n kho] [ddo+` biu o-v rai-t-x] 68. 10 tu chi'nh dda^`u tie^n cu?a Hie^'n Pha'p go.i la` gi` ? (Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n Nha^n Quye^`n)

69. Where does Congress meet? (In the Capitol in Washington, D.C.) [que ddo+-z co^ng-go+`-re't-x mi't] [in ddo+` ca'-po+-to^` in qua-sinh-ta^n, ddi-xi] 69. Quo^'c Ho^.i nho'm ho.p ta.i dda^u ? (To`a nha` La^.p pha'p ta.i Washington [qua-sinh-ta^n], D.C.[ddi-xi])

70. Whose rights are guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights? (Everyone, including citizens and non-citizens living in the U.S.) [hu-z rai-t-x a ga'-ro+n-ti't bai ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n en ddo+` biu o-v rai-t-x] [e'-vo_ri-quon, in-co+`-lu't-ddinh xi'-ti-za^n-z en na^n xi'-ti-za^n-z liu-vinh in ddo+` du-e't-x] 70. Quye^`n cu?a ai ddu+o+.c ba?o dda?m bo+?i Hie^'n Pha'p va` Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n Nha^n Quye^`n ? (Ta^'t ca? mo.i ngu+o+`i, ke^? ca? co^ng da^n va` ngoa.i kie^`u cu+ ngu. tre^n nu+o+'c My~)

71. What is the introduction to the Constitution and the Bill of Rights? (The Preamble) [quo't i-z ddo+` in-tro^-dda^'c-sa^n tu ddo+` khon-x-ti-tu'-sa^n en ddo+` biu o-v rai-t-x] [ddo+` po+`-ri`-e'm-bo^`] 71. Lo+`i mo+? dda^`u cu?a Hie^'n Pha'p va` Ba?n Tuye^n Ngo^n Nha^n Quye^`n la` gi` ? (Lo+`i Tu+.a)

72. Name one benefit of being a citizen of the United States. (Obtain federal government jobs; travel with a U.S. passport; have right to vote) [ne^m quon be'-no+-fi't o-v bi-inh o+ xi'-ti-za^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [o+.p-te^'n fe'-ddo+-ro^ go+-vo+n-ma^`n jo'p-z; tra'-vo^` qui't o+ du-e't-x pa't-x-po.t; heo-v rai-t tu vo^'t] 72. Ke^? mo^.t quye^`n lo+.i cu?a co^ng da^n My~. (La`m vie^.c cho chi'nh phu? lie^n bang; du ha`nh vo+'i gia^'y tho^ng ha`nh My~; co' quye^`n ba^`u cu+?)

73. What is the most important right granted to U.S. citizens? (The right to vote) [quo't i-z ddo+` mo^'t-x im-po.t-ta^n rai-t go+`-ren-ti't tu du-e't-x xi'-ti-za^n] [ddo+` rai-t tu vo^'t] 73. Quye^`n quan tro.ng nha^'t cu?a co^ng da^n My~ la` gi` ? (Quye^`n ba^`u cu+?)

74. What is the United States Capitol? (The place where Congress meets) [quo't i-z ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x ca'-po+-to^`] [ddo+` po+`-le^'t-x que co^ng-go+`re't-x mi't] 74. To`a nha` La^.p pha'p nu+o+'c My~ la` gi` ? (Cho^~ Quo^'c Ho^.i nho'm ho.p)

75. What is the White House? (The President's official home) [quo't i-z ddo+` quai-t hao-x] [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n-z o'p-fi'-so^` ho^m] 75. To`a Ba.ch O^'c la` gi` ? (Dinh thu+. chi'nh thu+'c cu?a To^?ng Tho^'ng)

76. Where is the White House located? (Washington D.C.) [que i-z ddo+` quai-t hao-x lo^-ke^'t-ti't] [qua-sinh-ta^n ddi-xi] 76. To`a Ba.ch O^'c to.a la.c o+? dda^u ? (Washington [qua-sinh-ta^n], D.C.[ddi-xi])

77. What is the name of the President's official home? (The White House) [quo't i-z ddo+` ne^m o-v ddo+` po+`re'-zi-dda^n-x o'p-fi'-so^` ho^m] [ddo+` quai-t hao-x] 77. Dinh thu+. chi'nh thu+'c cu?a To^?ng Tho^'ng la` gi` ? (To`a Ba.ch O^'c)

78. Name one right guaranteed by the first amendment. (Freedom of speech, press, religion, peaceable assembly, and requesting change of the government) [ne^m quon rai-t ga'-ro+n-ti't bai ddo+` fo+.t-x o+-me'n-ma^n] [fo+`-ri-ddo+`m o-v x-pi'ch, po+`-re't-x, ri-li'-ji-o+n, pi't-xo+-bo^` o+`xe'm-bo+`-li`, en ri`-ku-e't-x-tinh chen-j o-v ddo+` go+-vo+n-ma^`n] 78. Ke^? mo^.t quye^`n ba?o dda?m bo+?i tu chi'nh thu+' nha^'t . (Tu+. do ngo^n lua^.n, ba'o chi', ti'n ngu+o+~ng, ho^.i ho.p trong tra^.t tu+., va` ye^u ca^`u thay ddo^?i chi'nh phu?)

79. Who is Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. military? (The President) [hu i-z co`m-men-ddo+ in chie^'p o-v ddo+` du-e't-x mi-li-te-ri] [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] 79. Ai la` To^?ng Tu+ Le^.nh qua^n do^.i nu+o+'c My~ ? (To^?ng Tho^'ng)

80. Which President was the first Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. military? (George Washington) [qui'ch po+`-re'-zi-dda^n quo-z ddo+` fo+.t-x co`m-men-ddo+ in chie^'p o-v ddo+` du-e't-x mi-li-te-ri] [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n] 80. To^?ng Tho^'ng na`o la` To^?ng Tu+ Le^.nh dda^`u tie^n cu?a qua^n do^.i nu+o+'c My~ ? (George Washington [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n])

81. In what month do we vote for the President? (November) [in quo't ma^n-th ddu qui vo^'t fo ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] [no^-ve'm-bo+] 81. Tha'ng na`o chu'ng ta ba^`u cu+? To^?ng Tho^'ng ? (Tha'ng 11)

82. In what month is the new President inaugurated? (January) [in quo't ma^n-th i-z ddo+` niu ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n in-o'-ghiu-re^'t-ti't] [je'-nu-o+-ri`] 82. Tha'ng na`o Ta^n To^?ng Tho^'nh nha^.m chu+'c ? (Tha'ng gie^ng)

83. How many times may a Senator be re-elected? (There is no limit) [hao me'-ni thai-mz me^ o+ xe'-no+-to+ bi ri`-i-le'c-ti't] [dde i-z no^ li'-mi.t] 83. Mo^.t Thu+o+.ng Nghi. Si~ co' the^? ddu+o+.c ta'i cu+? ma^'y la^`n ? (Kho^ng ha.n che^')

84. How many times may a Congressman be re-elected? (There is no limit) [hao me'-ni thai-mz me^ o+ co^ng-go+`-re't-x-ma^n bi ri`-i-le'c-ti't] [dde i-z no^ li'-mi.t] 84. Mo^.t Da^n Bie^?u co' the^? ddu+o+.c ta'i cu+? ma^'y la^`n ? (Kho^ng ha.n che^')

85. What are the 2 major political parties in the U.S. today? (Democratic and Republican) [quo't a ddo+` tu me^-jo+ po^-li'-ti-co^` pa.c-ti-z in ddo+` du-e't-x tu-dde^-i] [dde'-mo^-co+`-ra-ti'c en ri`-pa'-bo+`-li-ca^n] 85. Hai chi'nh dda?ng chi'nh ye^'u cu?a nu+o+'c My~ hie^.n nay la` gi` ? (Da^n Chu? va` Co^.ng Ho`a)

86. How many states are there in the United States? (50) [hao me'-ni x-te^'t-x a dde in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] [fi'p-thi`] 86. Co' bao nhie^u tie^?u bang trong nu+o+'c My~ ? (50)

Study Questions for the Writing Section [x-to+'-ddi ku-e't-x-cha^n-z fo ddo+` rai-ting xe'c-sa^n] Ca^u Ho?i Luye^.n Thi Vie^'t

1. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country. [ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t i-z ddo+` hai-e't-x kho.t in ddo+` kha^n-tri] 1. To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n la` to`a a'n cao nha^'t trong nu+o+'c .

2. The United States has fifty (50) states. [ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x he-z fi'p-thi` x-te^'t-x] 2. Nu+o+'c My~ co' na(m mu+o+i (50) tie^?u bang .

3. George Bush was the President of the United States. [jo.t bu-s quo-z ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] 3. George Bush [jo.t bu-s] la` cu+.u To^?ng Tho^'ng nu+o+'c My~ .

4. There are two (2) Senators from each state. [dde a tu xe'no+-to+-z fo+`-ro`m i'ch x-te^'t] 4. Co' hai (2) Thu+o+.ng Nghi. Si~ tu+` mo^~i tie^?u bang .

5. The Congress makes the laws in the United States. [ddo+` co^ng-go+`-re't-x me^'t-co+`-x ddo+` lo-z in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] 5. Quo^'c Ho^.i la`m lua^.t trong nu+o+'c My~ .

6. I live in (state in which examinee resides). [ai liu-v in (x-te^'t in qui'ch i'c-za'-mi-ni ri`-zai)] 6. To^i cu+ ngu. trong (tie^?u bang ma` ngu+o+`i ddu+o+.c pho?ng va^'n o+?)

7. The Congress meets in the Capitol. [ddo+` co^ng-go+`-re't-x mi't-x in ddo+` ca'-po+-to^`] 7. Quo^'c Ho^.i nho'm ho.p trong To`a Nha` La^.p Pha'p .

8. The President works in Washington, D.C. [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n quo+.t-x in qua-sinh-ta^n, ddi-xi] 8. To^?ng Tho^'ng la`m vie^.c ta.i Washington [qua-sinh-ta^n], D.C.[ddi-xi] .

9. George Washington was the first President. [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n quo-z ddo+` fo+.t-x po+`-re'-zi-dda^n] 9. George Washington [jo.t qua-sinh-ta^n] la` To^?ng Tho^'ng dda^`u tie^n .

10. The President appoints the Supreme Court justices. [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n o+`-poi-t-x ddo+` xu'p-po+`-rim kho.t jo+'t-ti't-xi-z] 10. To^?ng Tho^'ng bo^? nhie^.m ca'c tha^?m pha'n To^'i Cao Pha'p Vie^.n .

11. Thanksgiving is in November. [then-x-ghiu-vinh i-z in no^-ve'm-bo+] 11. Le^~ Ta. O+n trong tha'ng 11 .

12. You must be a United States citizen to vote. [du mo+'t-x bi o+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x xi'-ti-za^n tu vo^'t] 12. Ba.n pha?i la` co^ng da^n nu+o+'c My~ dde^? ddu+o+.c ba^`u cu+? .

13. The American flag has fifty (50) stars. [ddi` o+`-me'-ri-ca^n fo+`-la('c he-z fi'p-thi` x-ta-z] 13. Co+` My~ co' na(m mu+o+i (50) ngo^i sao .

14. Washington, D.C. is the capital of the United States. [qua-sinh-ta^n, ddi-xi i-z ddo+` ca'-po+-to^` o-v ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] 14. Washington [qua-sinh-ta^n], D.C.[ddi-xi] la` thu? ddo^ cu?a nu+o+'c My~

15. Abraham Lincoln was President during the Civil War. [e^-bo+`-ro+-hem li'n-ca^n quo-z po+`-re'-zi-dda^n ddiu-rinh ddo+` xi'-vo^` quo] 15. Abraham Lincoln [e^-bo+`-ro+-hem li'n-ca^n] la` To^?ng Tho^'ng trong tho+`i No^.i Chie^'n .

16. The President lives in the White House. [ddo+` po+`-re'-zi-dda^n liu-v in ddo+` quai-t hao-x] 16. To^?ng Tho^'ng cu+ ngu. trong To`a Ba.ch O^'c .

17. The American flag has thirteen (13) stripes. [ddi` o+`-me'-ri-ca^n fo+`-la('c he-z tho+-thi'n x-trai-px] 17. Co+` My~ co' mu+o+`i ba (13) so.c .

18. The Vice-President works in Washington, D.C. [ddo+` vai-x po+`-re'-zi-dda^n quo+.t-x in qua-sinh-ta^n, ddi-xi] 18. Pho' To^?ng Tho^'ng la`m vie^.c ta.i Washington [qua-sinh-ta^n], D.C.[ddi-xi].

19. We have freedom of speech in the United States. [qui heo-v fo+`-ri'-ddo+`m o-v x-pi'ch in ddo+` du-nai-ti.t x-te^'t-x] 19. Chu'ng ta co' tu+. do ngo^n lua^.n trong nu+o+'c My~ .

20. The Congress has two (2) houses. [ddo+` co^ng-go+`re't-x he-z tu hao-xi-z] 20. Quo^'c Ho^.i co' hai (2) vie^.n .

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

So+? Di Tru' Nu+o+'c My~

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

NHU+~NG CA^U THU+O+`NG HO?I

How do I apply for citizenship if I am a "Green Card" holder? La`m sao dde^? to^i xin nha^.p quo^'c ti.ch ne^'u to^i co' the? xanh?

If you have a "Green Card", are at least 18 years of age, and have lived Ne^'u ba.n co' the? xanh, i't nha^'t 18 tuo^?i, va` dda~ cu+ ngu.

in the United States as a lawful permanent resident for five years; or trong nu+o+'c My~ nhu+ mo^.t thu+o+`ng tru' nha^n ho+.p pha'p 5 na(m hay

if you have been a "Green Card" holder and have been married to and ne^'u ba.n dda~ co' the? xanh va` dda~ la^.p ho^n pho^'i va`

residing with a United States citizen for three years, you may apply to so^'ng chung vo+'i mo^.t co^ng da^n My~ ddu+o+.c 3 na(m, ba.n co' the^?

become a United States citizen. xin nha^.p quo^'c ti.ch My~\.

The INS form necessary to file for U.S. citizenship is Form N-400, entitled Ma^~u ddo+n cu?a So+? Di Tru' dde^? xin nha^.p quo^'c ti.ch My~ la` Ma^~u

"Application for Naturalization." You may obtain the correct forms by N-400, tu+.a dde^` "DDo+n Xin Nha^.p Quo^'c Ti.ch". Ba.n co' the^? nha^.n ddu+o+.c ca'c ma^~u ddo+n chi'nh xa'c ba(`ng ca'ch go.i ddie^.n thoa.i

dialing 1-800-870-FORM or 1-800-870-3676 and asking for an "N-400 so^' 1-800-870-FORM hay so^' 1-800-870-3676 va` ho?i xin ma^~u "N-400

Naturalization Packet." Naturalization Packet." [en fo-ha^n-ddo+-ri.t na'-cho+-ro+-lai-ze^'-sa^n pa('t-ki.t]

There are two educational requirements for becoming a U.S. citizen. First, Co' hai ddie^`u ddo`i ho?i ve^` ho.c va^'n dde^? tro+? tha`nh co^ng da^n My~\.

you must show that you can read and write simple English. Second, you must Thu+' nha^'t, ba.n pha?i chu+'ng to? ba.n co' the^? ddo.c va` vie^'t

show that you know basic facts about U.S. history and government, by either tie^'ng Anh ddo+n gia?n. Thu+' nhi`, ba.n pha?i chu+'ng to? ba.n bie^'t nhu+~ng ddie^`u ca(n ba?n ve^` li.ch su+? va` chi'nh quye^`n My~, ba(`ng

answering questions before an immigration officer at the time of your ca'ch tra? lo+`i ca'c ca^u ho?i tru+o+'c ma(.t mo^.t vie^n chu+'c So+? Di

interview or by passing a history and government exam at a place approved Tru' trong lu'c ddu+o+.c pho?ng va^'n hay ba(`ng ca'ch thi dda^.u ba`i tra('c nghie^.m o+? mo^.t co+ so+? tra('c nghie^.m ddu+o+.c So+? Di Tru'

by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. For a list of the thu+`a nha^.n. Muo^'n co' danh sa'ch nhu+~ng co+ so+? to^? chu+'c cuo^.c

organizations in your area which offer the standardized citizenship test, thi nha^.p quo^'c ti.ch trong vu`ng ba.n o+?, xin vui lo`ng go.i so^'

please call 1-800-755-0777. If you choose to take the written test, you ddie^.n thoa.i 1-800-755-0777. Ne^'u ba.n cho.n thi vie^'t, ba.n se~

will be required to show that you can speak and understand English during chi? ca^`n chu+'ng to? ba.n co' the^? no'i va` hie^?u tie^'ng Anh trong

your interview with an immigration officer. cuo^.c pho?ng va^'n vo+'i mo^.t vie^n chu+'c So+? Di Tru'\.

There are ways in which the requirement to understand English can be waived. Co' nhu+~ng ca'ch mie^~n ddie^`u kie^.n hie^?u tie^'ng Anh.

If, on the date of filing your application, you are fifty years of age or Ne^'u, ti'nh dde^'n nga`y ba.n no^.p ddo+n xin nha^.p quo^'c ti.ch, ba.n

older, and you have been a lawful permanent resident of the United States ddu+o+.c 50 tuo^?i tro+? le^n, va` ba.n dda~ la` mo^.t thu+o+`ng tru'

for more than twenty years, you do not have to show that you can read and nha^n ho+.p pha'p cu?a nu+o+'c My~ ho+n 20 na(m, ba.n kho^ng ca^`n pha?i

write simple English. This is also true if you are unable to comply with bie^'t ddo.c va` bie^'t vie^'t tie^'ng Anh ddo+n gia?n. Cu~ng ddu+o+.c

the English language requirement because of a disability or if you are a mie^~n ddie^`u kie^.n ddo`i ho?i ve^` tie^'ng Anh ne^'u ba.n bi. ta^.t

person who is fifty-five years of age or older who has resided in the nguye^`n hay ne^'u ba.n ddu+o+.c 50 tuo^?i tro+? le^n va` dda~ so^'ng

United States as a lawful permanent resident for at least fifteen years. trong nu+o+'c My~ nhu+ mo^.t thu+o+`ng tru' nha^n ho+.p pha'p i't nha^'t 15 na(m.

You must still show that you have a knowledge of U.S. history and government, Ba.n va^~n pha?i chu+'ng to? ba.n co' kie^'n thu+'c ve^` li.ch su+? va`

and you may be tested in your native language. chi'nh quye^`n My~, va` ba.n co' the^? ddu+o+.c thi tra('c nghie^.m ba(`ng ngo^n ngu+~ chi'nh cu?a ba.n.

If you are applying for citizenship for a child who is under the age of Ne^'u ba.n xin nha^.p quo^'c ti.ch cho con du+o+'i 18 tuo^?i cu?a ba.n,

eighteen, has a "Green Card", and has at least one U.S. citizen parent, co' the? xanh, va` co' i't nha^'t mo^.t cha hoa(.c me. la` co^ng da^n My~,

but did not automatically become a United States citizen, the child may be nhu+ng dda~ kho^ng tu+. ddo^.ng tro+? tha`nh co^ng da^n My~, ngu+o+`i con

eligible for a certificate of citizenship. However, in most cases the child co' the^? ddu+o+.c ca^'p chu+'ng chi? co^ng da^n. Tuy nhie^n, trong ha^`u

must be living with the U.S. citizen parent and that U.S. citizen parent he^'t tru+o+`ng ho+.p ngu+o+`i con pha?i so^'ng vo+'i mo^.t ngu+o+`i cha

must file Form N-600 entitled, "Application for Certificate of Citizenship." hoa(.c me. la` co^ng da^n My~ va` ngu+o+`i cha hoa(.c me. co^ng da^n My~ na^`y pha?i no^.p Ma^~u N-600 tu+.a dde^` "DDo+n Xin Chu+'ng Chi? Co^ng Da^n".

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NINE WAYS TO SAVE  ON A MORTGATE

[vacets-gen] - Mesg from Chanh Cao <ccao@bbt.com>

Nine ways to save on a mortgage

by Greg Daugherty

Unless you're the sort of person who collects Impressionist paintings or Major League baseball players, chances are a house, condominium, or co-op will be the most expensive thing you'll ever buy. And unless you've saved a whole lot of cash by heeding the sage advice offered in earlier installments of Money Online's Save On ... column, you'll probably need a mortgage to finance it. Here's how to borrow money--without borrowing trouble.

1. Read up on rates. Not so long ago, the only way to comparison shop for a mortgage was to spend all day on the telephone or all night squinting at the signs in bank windows. Now any number of services collect and publish mortgage rates, either for free or at a nominal price. If you just want to get a feel for the mortgage market, check out the online sites before you pay for anything. (Believe me, prospective home buyer: You're going to need that money.) Following are some sites to visit:

* Bankrate Monitor (http://www.bankrate.com), a Florida-based company that supplies lending data to the financial press (including Money), presents mortgage rates for 118 metro areas at its web site. If you were looking to buy a place in Indianapolis, for example, you recently could compare 13 different lenders' rates on 30-year and 15- year fixed mortgages and one- year ARMs. There's also a payment calculator and enough mortgage minutia to make anyone a total bore on the subject. In sum, a veritable online shrine to the home mortgage.

* HSH Associates (http://www.hsh.com), a New Jersey-based firm that also supplies data to Money, offers a free online "sampling" of the mortgage rates it publishes. For $11, HSH will e-mail you a detailed survey of the metro area of your choice; printouts are also available by mail at the same price. Phone is 800-873-2837, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST, weekdays.

* Money's own Best Rates feature on the World Wide Web (http://money.com/rates/index.html) shows the best loan rates on 30-year fixed mortgages and one-year ARMS in the 100 largest U.S. cities, and includes savings and mortgage calculators.

Final note: If your real-estate agent pushes a particular lender, be wary. While the agent may have your best interests at heart, it's also possible that he or she is simply cozy with that lender. So check 'em out, but don't let your comparison shopping end there.

2. Pick up on points. Important as interest rates are, they're only part of the mortgage equation. Another big variable is "points." In mortgage lingo, points are interest you pay up front. Each point equals one percent of the amount you're borrowing. On a $100,000 mortgage, for example, one point would mean $1,000; two points, $2,000, and so on. Typically, lenders will offer a lower interest rate the more points you pay. Where it gets tricky is in comparing one lender's 8.5% mortgage with no points against another's 8% mortgage with 1.5 points and a third's 7.625% mortgage with 2.2 points. How do you know which is the better deal? The answer depends, in part, on how long you expect to stay in that home. The longer you stay, the less significant the points will be and the more sense it may make to pay a few (if you have the cash) in order to lock in a lower rate.

For example, suppose you want to borrow $100,000. With the 8.5% loan above, monthly payments would run about $769. With the 8% loan (plus 1.5 points), payments would be about $734, a monthly saving of $35. To determine which loan makes more sense, divide the cost of the points on the cheaper loan ($1,500) by the monthly savings ($35). The result is 42.9, meaning you'll need to keep the home for about 43 months--or a little over 3 and a half years--to break even. (Yes, math buffs, I know that calculation ignores the "time value of money," but it's close enough.)

The sites described in tip #1 show the required points along with the interest rate of each mortgage. They also note the third big variable, the required down payment. Which brings us to:

3. Scrape up your down payment. The more money you can afford to put down when you buy a home, the less you'll have to borrow--so the less you'll pay in interest. For example, a $200,000 home with a 30-year, 8% mortgage will cost you about $1,174 a month if you put down 20% (or $40,000) and $1,321 if you put down 10% (or $20,000).

If a 20% or even 10% is beyond reach, there are ways to get a mortgage with a down payment as low as 5%--and sometimes less:

* FHA (as in Federal Housing Administration) loans are insured by the federal government. To see if you might qualify, visit the Consumer Information Center's web site (www.pueblo.gsa.gov). Click on "Housing," then on "Guide to Single Family Home Mortgage Insurance."

* VA (as in Department of Veterans Affairs) loans are for vets of the armed services. The Consumer Information Center (www.pueblo.gsa.gov) has an online brochure that describes this program along with other veterans benefits. Click on "Federal Programs," then on "Federal Benefits for Veterans and Dependents." Be warned, though: This is a 211,129-byte monster that takes a while to download.

* FmHA (for Farmers Home Administration) loans are available in rural areas. You can get information on them by calling the nearest U.S. Department of Agriculture office.

* Private mortgage insurance (PMI) is the non-government alternative. You'll probably have to buy PMI if you put less than 20% down. With PMI you may be able to get away with as little as 5%, and a portion of that can be borrowed from another source, such as your family. For more about PMI, see tip #7, below.

4. Get a fix on fixed rates vs. adjustables. At some point in your deliberations, you'll have to decide whether you want a fixed-rate mortgage or an adjustable-rate one, commonly known as an ARM. Again, how long you plan to keep your home is a key variable. ARMs, which start out with low rates but can get considerably more expensive in subsequent years, may be a bargain if you expect to move in a year or two; they can also make sense when interest rates are high and a fixed-rate loan would be unaffordable. Another alternative is a sort of hybrid mortgage that starts out fixed, then converts to an ARM after a few years; it may be less expensive initially than a purely fixed-rate loan.

In checking out ARMs, ask about the "caps" that govern how much your rate can go up each year and over the life of the loan. Don't be too easily seduced by first-year "teaser rates." Your mortgage payment will almost certainly go up in the second year, even if interest rates generally have remained flat.

If you decide that a fixed-rate loan is the way to go, you still have one more big decision to make: 15-year or 30-year. The former will save you money in interest payments over the long term; the latter will mean a smaller check to write each month in the meantime.

5. Close in on closing costs. A "closing" is what bankers call the meeting where you sign the papers to formally buy your home. Another way of looking at it is the point at which the bank separates you from what little cash you thought you were going to have left. Among the costs you'll face: points (as described above), title insurance, lawyer fees, document- preparation charges, and assorted gouges--like messenger expenses for papers that never went anywhere. Your lender is required to give you a list of these costs by the time of your closing. Don't hesitate to question any that don't make sense to you; also be sure that your lawyer takes a hard look at the list, rather than simply snoozing through your closing. And bring plenty of blank checks.

Bear in mind that you don't have to use the insurance companies your lender recommends. You may, in fact, save some money by shopping around. For advice on one kind of insurance you're apt to need, see Save On... homeowners insurance.

Note, too, that closing costs are often negotiable. An eager seller may cover some of them as part of your deal. A lender may waive or reduce a few fees if it really wants your business.

Even after you've closed on your home, you'll still have opportunities to save on your mortgage:

6. Grab that grace period. Your mortgage payment will probably be due by the first of the month. But there's likely to be a grace period in your loan contract, which may mean that you really don't have to get your check in until mid-month. Keep the payment in your bank account or money-market fund for the two weeks and you'll earn a few bucks in extra interest each month.

7. Say bye-bye to PMI. You shouldn't have to pay for private mortgage insurance once the equity in your home equals 20%. And that's true whether you've reached the exalted 20% threshold simply through your monthly payments or with a little help from local housing appreciation. Don't rely on your lender to automatically drop your PMI, though. If the bank balks, you may need to hire an appraiser to prove your home's worth.

8. Skip the mortgage life insurance. Once you have a mortgage (maybe even before), you'll get sales pitches for insurance that will pay off your mortgage if you're called to the big condo complex in the sky. Not only is mortgage life insurance often overpriced, but your heirs may be better off keeping the mortgage and simply making the usual monthly payments. If you don't already have enough life insurance, you can almost certainly get a better deal on a conventional term policy. One exception: If your health makes you ineligible for other life insurance, a mortgage life policy with no health restrictions would be worth a look.

9. Delight in the deductions. The interest on mortgages to buy, build, or improve a home is fully deductible at tax time, provided you don't go hog wild and borrow more than $1 million. So, for example, if you're in the 28% tax bracket and pay $10,000 a year in interest, you'll reap a $2,800 tax saving right there. Any points you pay in return for a lower mortgage rate are also deductible in the year you paid them. Property taxes, too, are deductible on your federal return, including any you pay at the closing.

To save money over the long term on your mortgage, you may want to kick in a little extra each month when you write your check. A future edition of Save On... will look at the pluses and pitfalls of pre- paying a mortgage.

Meanwhile, check out Save On... moving for some tips that can help both your chairs and your checkbook survive the trip to your new home.

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INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIAD MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION - RESULT 1996

- Mesg from Tuan V Nguyen <t.nguyen@garvan.unsw.edu.au>

The annual 37th International Olympiad Mathematical Competition was held in Bombay in July 8-17 1996. There were more than 75 countries with 426 candidates participated in the competition. Vietnam had sent 6 students and they were all in the top rank. Particularly, Ngo Dac Thuan and Ngo Duc Huy were ranked number 4 overall. As a team, Vietnam, although had a higher scores than China (175 vs 160), but was curiously ranked numer 7, behind China! The US was ranked number 2 and Romania number 1. It should be noted that in the 1995 competion, Vietnam was ranked number 4, ahead of the US, UK, Hungary etc.

For your info, there are normally 6 questions in the contest. Candidates are given one week to solve. This year the questions are:

1. Let ABCD be a rectangular board, with AB = 20 and BC = 12. The board is divided into 20x12 squares. Let r be a given positive integer. A coin can be moved from one square to another iff the distance between the centres of the two squares is sqrt(r). The task is to find a sequence of moves taking the coin from the square with A as a vertex to the square with B as a vertex.

a) Show that the task cannot be done if r is divisible by 2 or 3. b) Prove that the task can be done if r = 73. c) Can the task be done when r = 97?

2. Let P be a point inside triangle ABC such that angle(APB) - angle(ACB) = angle(APC) - angle(ABC). Let D and E be the incentres of triangles APB and APC respectively. Show that AP, BD, and CF meet at a point.

3. Let S = {0, 1, 2, ...}. Find all functions f defined on S taking their values in S such that f(m + f(n)) = f(f(m)) + f(n) for all m and n in S.

4. The positive integers a and b are such that the numbers 15a + 16b and 16a - 15b are both squares of positive integers. Find the least possible value that can be taken by the minimum of these two squares.

5. Let ABCDEF be a convex hexagon, such that AB||ED, BC||FE, and CD||AF. Let R_A, R_C, and R_E denote the circumradii of triangles FAB, BCD, and DEF respectively, and let p denote the perimeter of the hexagon. Prove that R_A + R_C + R_E >= p/2.

6. Let n, p, and q be positive integers with n > p + q. Let x_0, x_1, ..., x_n be integers satisfying the following conditions: a) x_0 = x_n = 0, and b) For each integer i, 1 <= i <= n, either x_i - x_{i-1} = p or x_i - x_{i-1} = -q. Show that there exists a pair (i,j) of indices with i < j, and (i,j) != (0,0), such that x_i = x_j.

-----

The partial results for 1995 and full results for 1996 are as follows:

IMO95 results -

Rank .....Country .................Score

1 ............China .......................236

2........... Romania ..................230

3 ........... Russia .....................227

4 .......... Vietnam ...................220

34.......... Thailand..................107

53......... Indonesia .................68

72.......... Malaysia ...................1

73 ...........Kuwait ......................0

IMO96 Results

Rank ordering of countries ----- Rank Code Score

1 Romania ..........................187

2 USA ..............................185

3 Hungary ..........................167

4 Russia ...........................162

5 UK .......................................161

6 China............................ 160

7 Vietnam.......................... 175

8 Republic of Korea ................158

9 Iran .............................143

10 Federal Republic of Germany .....137

11 Japan ...........................136

12 Bulgaria ........................136

13 Poland ..........................122

14 India ...........................118

15 Israel ..........................114

16 Canada ..........................111

17 Slovenia ........................108

18 Turkey ..........................106

19 Ukraine .........................105

20 Chinese Taipei ..................100

21 Belarus ..........................99

22 Greece ...........................95

23 Australia ........................93

24 Yugoslavia (Serbia, Montenegro) ..87

25 Singapore ........................86

26 Italy ............................86

27 Hong Kong ........................84

28 Czech Republic ...................83

29 Argentina ........................80

30 Georgia ..........................78

31 Belgium ..........................75

32 Lithuania........................ 68

33 Latvia ...........................66

34 Croatia ..........................63

35 Armenia ..........................63

36 France ...........................61

37 Norway ...........................60

38 New Zealand ......................60

39 Finland ..........................58

40 Sweden ...........................57

41 Moldova ..........................55

42 Austria ..........................54

43 South Africa .....................50

44 Slokakia .........................49

45 Mongolia .........................49

46 Thailand .........................47

47 Denmark ..........................44

48 Macau ............................44

49 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 44

50 Spain ............................44

51 Columbia .........................38

52 Brazil ...........................36

53 Sri Lanka ........................34

54 Mexico ...........................34

55 Estonia ..........................33

56 Iceland ..........................31

57 Bosnia Hercegovinia ..............30

58 Azerbaijan .......................27

59 Netherlands ......................26

60 Trinidad and Tobago ..............25

61 Ireland ..........................24

62 Switzerland ......................23

63 Portugal .........................21

64 Kazakstan ........................20

65 Morocco ..........................19

66 Cuba .............................16

67 Kirgighstan ......................15

68 Albania ..........................15

69 Cyprus ...........................14

70 Indonesia ........................11

71 Chile ............................10

72 Malaysia ..........................9

73 Turkmenstan .......................9

74 Phillipines .......................8

75 Kuwait ............................1

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