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VACETS Regular Technical Column

"Everyday Engineering"

"Everyday Engineering" was a technical column posted regularly on the VACETS forum. The Chair of this column is Dr. Hoang Viet-Dung. For more publications produced by other VACETS  members, please visit the VACETS Member Publications page or Technical Columns page.

The VACETS Technical Column is contributed by various members , especially those of the VACETS Technical Affairs Committe. Articles are posted regulary on vacets@peak.org forum. Please send questions, comments and suggestions to vacets-ta@vacets.org

Sun, 11 Dec 1994

Bi`nh Lua^.n Ve^` "Ha`nh Tri`nh Ti`m Bo^. Chu+~ Vie^.t Cho Ma'y DDie^.n Toa'n" cu?a Va(n Ha?i Ly'

Bi`nh Anson (Perth, Western Australia)

oOo

Tru+o+'c he^'t to^i xin ca'm o+n ta'c gia? dda~ ddo'ng go'p mo^.t ba`i vie^'t ve^` ca'c va^'n dde^` su+? du.ng nhu kie^.n Vie^.t Nam qua kinh nhie^.m va` nha~n quan cu?a mo^.t ngu+o+`i kha'ch ha`ng tie^u du`ng. Chu'ng ta dda~ ddo.c nhie^`u ba`i vie^'t cu?a ca'c chuye^n gia tin ho.c, nhu+ng chu'ng ta ca^`n co' nhu+~ng ba`i phe^ bi`nh, y' kie^'n, kinh nghie^.m cu?a ngu+o+`i su+? du.ng, vi` to^'i ha^.u, ca'c nhu kie^.n sa?n xua^'t ra la` dde^? phu.c vu. dda.i chu'ng, nhu+~ng ngu+o+`i kho^ng chuye^n mo^n ve^` ddie^.n toa'n, nhu+ng du`ng nhu kie^.n nhu+ la` mo^.t co^ng cu. trong sinh hoa.t ha(`ng nga`y\.

Sau dda^y, to^i xin co' mo^.t ba`i y' kie^'n tho^ thie^?n ve^` ba`i vie^'t cu?a anh Va(n Ha?i Ly'.

1. HAI PHO^NG VA` HAI BYTE :

Ta'c gia? dde^` ca^.p dde^'n va^'n dde^` su+? du.ng 2 pho^ng (Thu+o+`ng va` Hoa) cho cu`ng mo^.t da.ng chu+~ trong ca'c nhu kie^.n cu?a VNU/VNLabs, Viet-Std (Trichlor), va` VPS (VNCII). Va^'n dde^` na^`y dda~ ddu+o+.c tha?o lua^.n ra^'t nhie^`u tre^n ca'c die^~n dda`n Internet va` ca'c ba'o Vie^.t ngu+~. Tu+.u trung la.i, ddo' la` he^. qua? cu?a vie^.c ddem ca'c ky' tu+. VN va`o ba?ng ma~ tu+. 8-bit. Ba?ng 256 ma~ tu+. na^`y kho^ng ddu? cho^~ dde^? chu+'a ca'c ky' tu+. ca(n ba?n, ky' tu+. kie^?m, ky' tu+. trang tri', co^.ng the^m ca'c ky' tu+. dda(.c bie^.t cu?a VN. Vi` va^.y ma` dda~ co' nhie^`u gia?i pha'p dung ho`a, tu+o+ng ddo^'i kha? thi va` kha? du.ng trong ca'c co^ng ta'c su+? du.ng ddie^.n toa'n cho chu+~ Vie^.t. Khi dda~ no'i dde^'n "dung ho`a" va` "tu+o+ng ddo^'i", the^' na`o cu~ng co' u+u va` khuye^'t ddie^?m, lo+.i va` ba^'t lo+.i\.

Vie^.c du`ng 2 bo^. pho^ng Thu+o+`ng - Hoa cho mo^~i da.ng chu+~ la` mo^.t gia?i pha'p dung ho`a, dde^? giu+~ nguye^n ca'c ky' tu+. dda(.c bie^.t va` trang tri' , ddo^`ng tho+`i cu~ng dde^? la`m de^~ da`ng trong mo.i chu+o+`ng tri`nh u+'ng du.ng, tu+` xu+? ly' va(n ba?n cho dde^'n qua?n ly' kho du+~ kie^.n co+ so+?, du`ng ddu+o+.c trong DOS la^~n Windows, va` ddo^i khi cu~ng du`ng ddu+o+.c trong ca'c he^. ddie^`u ha`nh kha'c. Ne^n nho+' ra(`ng bo^. VNI trong DOS cu~ng du`ng bo^. chu+~ da^'u ddo+n 1-byte, nhu+ng VNI chi? du`ng 1 pho^ng la` vi` VNI dda~ bo? ddi ca'c ky' tu+. dda(.c bie^.t va` trang tri', va` ca'c ky' tu+. tho^ng du.ng cu?a A^u cha^u\.

Vie^.c du`ng 2 pho^ng chu+~ la`m ta(ng ye^u ca^`u bo^. chu+'a la` mo^.t su+. kie^.n ddu'ng tre^n NGUYE^N TA('C, nhu+ng tre^n THU+.C TE^', kho^ng ai du`ng ca? tra(m bo^. pho^ng chu+~ co' sa(~n tre^n thi. tru+o+`ng ca?. DDo^'i vo+'i nhu+~ng a'p du.ng thu+o+`ng nga`y, ta chi? ca^`n co' mo^.t va`i bo^. pho^ng co+ ba?n serif va` sans-serif co^.ng the^m mo^.t va`i bo^. pho^ng trang tri' la` ddu?. Nhu+ va^.y, vo+'i ca'c loa.i PC 486 va` cao ho+n, vo+'i ddi~a cu+'ng co' tru+~ lu+o+.ng cao va` ca`ng nga`y ca`ng re?, va^'n dde^` du`ng ca(.p pho^ng Thu+o+`ng-Hoa cho ca'c da.ng chu+~ tho^ng du.ng kho^ng pha?i la` mo^.t va^'n dde^` tro.ng dda.i\. Chu'ng to^i dda~ la`m mo^.t to+` nguye^.t san ho+n 1 na(m nay, mo^~i so^' 60 trang vo+'i nhie^`u qua?ng ca'o, ma` tho^ng thu+o+`ng chu'ng to^i chi? du`ng khoa?ng 10 pho^ng co+ ba?n. Ne^'u ta dde^? y' nghie^n cu+'u lo^i du`ng pho^ng cu?a ca'c ba'o, ta.p chi' A^u My~, ta se~ tha^'y ra(`ng ho. chi? su+? du.ng va`i pho^ng co+ ba?n ma` tho^i, ngay ca? trong nhu+~ng trang qua?ng ca'o cu?a ho..

Ca'c tro+? nga.i khi pha?i chuye^?n sang bo^. pho^ng Hoa chi? la` tro+ nga.i nho? lu'c ban dda^`u, khi chu+a quen, co`n bo+~ ngo+~. Cu~ng ne^n bie^'t ra(`ng qui u+o+'c du`ng toa`n chu+~ Hoa la` qui u+o+'c ba('t nguo^`n tu+` tho+`i du`ng ba`n dda'nh chu+~ co+ ddo^.ng. Nga`y nay, trong ca'c va(n ba?n thu+o+`ng du`ng, ca'c ca^u va(n vie^'t ba(`ng chu+~ Hoa ra^'t hie^'m, ha^`u nhu+ kho^ng co`n a'p du.ng, ngoa.i tru+` mo^.t va`i tu+.a dde^` va` ca'c chu+~ vie^'t ta('t. Ca'c chuye^n gia nho'm Viet-Std dda~ co' nhie^`u nghie^n cu+'u dde^? dda(.t 6 ky' tu+. Hoa i't du`ng va`o vu`ng kie^?m, co`n ca'c ky' tu+. Hoa kha'c va^~n co' sa(~n trong bo^. pho^ng Thu+o+`ng. The^m va`o ddo', qui u+o+'c pho^? tho^ng hie^.n nay la` ngay ca? ca'c tie^u dde^` chi? du`ng chu+~ hoa o+? ma^~u tu+. dda^`u cu?a mo^~i chu+~. Vi` va^.y, ta va^~n du`ng ddu+o+.c bo^. pho^ng Thu+o+`ng dde^? dda'nh chu+~ Hoa trong dda so^' ca'c tru+o+`ng ho+.p.

Ta'c gia? co' ve? ca ngo+.i bo^. pho^ng 2-byte (16-bit) du`ng da^'u ro+`i cu?a VNI\. Tuy nhie^n cu~ng ne^n nho+' ra(`ng phu+o+ng ca'ch na^`y kho^ng pha?i chi? ddo^.c nha^'t vo+'i VNI, nhu+ng ddo' cu~ng la` nguye^n ta('c cu?a mo^.t tie^u chua^?n hie^.n ddang a'p du.ng ta.i Vie^.t Nam (Chua^?n TCVN, Ba?ng 2). Phu+o+ng ca'ch na^`y tuy co' ve? tie^.n lo+.i trong co^ng ta'c xu+? ly' va(n ba?n cu?a he^. Windows, gia?m thie^?u so^' bo^. pho^ng ca^`n du`ng va` co' ve? ddo+n gia?n khi dda'nh ma'y, nhu+ng cu~ng co' va`i ba^'t lo+.i\. Thu+' nha^'t, ddo^i khi ra^'t kho' chi?nh su+?a va` xo'a da^'u thanh, khi ra` soa't ca'c va(n ba?n. DDo^i khi chu+~ ca'i dda~ xo'a ddi ro^`i ma` da^'u ro+`i va^~n co`n lu+u la.i\. To^i dda~ du`ng VNI-Windows vo+'i WordPerfect 5.2 va` to^i thu+o+`ng ga(.p pha?i tro+? nga.i na^`y\. The^m va`o ddo', du`ng bo^. pho^ng na^`y kho^ng cho phe'p ta su+? du.ng chu+'c na(ng "ti`m - thay the^'" mo^~i khi ta muo^'n su+?a ddo^?i mo^.t va`i chu+~ na`o ddo' trong mo^.t va(n ba?n da`i\.

Thu+' hai, ne^'u ta muo^'n du`ng ca'c nhu kie^.n u+'ng du.ng kha'c trong Windows, ddo^i khi ta la.i pha?i su+? du.ng loa.i pho^ng 1-byte, vo+'i da^'u thanh co^' ddi.nh. Cho ne^n VNI-Windows va^~n pha?i cung ca^'p bo^. pho^ng 1-byte\. Mo^.t va^'n dde^` quan tro.ng kha'c la` bo^. chu+~ 2-byte kho^ng du`ng ddu+o+.c trong ca'c nhu lie^.u qua?n ly' du+~ kie^.n co+ so+? nhu+ DBase, FoxBase\. Trong tru+o+`ng ho+.p na^`y, ta la.i Pha?i du`ng loa.i chu+~ 1-byte\. VNI dda~ ddu+a ra 2 loa.i ky' tu+. : VNI-ASCII (du`ng trong DOS, VNIWord), va` VNI-ANSI (du`ng trong Windows va` Ventura). Tu+o+ng tu+., chua^?n TCVN cu?a Ha` No^.i cu~ng co' 2 ba?ng: Ba?ng TCVN-1 cho bo^. ma~ 1-byte, va` TCVN-2 cho bo^. ma~ da^'u ro+`i 2-byte\.

Ngay trong Windows, VNI cu~ng dda~ tu+`ng khuye^n ne^n du`ng bo^. 1- byte cho CorelDraw dde^? giu+~ ve? tha^~m my~ va` ca^n ddo^'i ma(.t chu+~ co' da^'u, nha^'t la` khi du`ng chu+~ co' co+~ lo+'n.

Co`n no'i ra(`ng phu+o+ng ca'ch 2 pho^ng Hoa-Thu+o+`ng ta.o the^m ye^u ca^`u bo^. chu+'a, thi` ta cu~ng co' the^? ly' lua^.n ra(`ng vie^.c du`ng bo^. 2-byte cu~ng se~ ta(ng ddo^. lo+'n cu?a va(n ba?n, tho^ng thu+o+`ng tu+` 20% dde^'n 50% so vo+'i va(n ba?n chi? du`ng ky' tu+. 1-byte\.

2. CA'CH BO? DA^'U

Pha?i nhi`n nha^.n ra(`ng VNI la` ngu+o+`i ddi tie^n phuo^ng trong vie^.c pha't trie^?n chu+~ Vie^.t trong ddie^.n toa'n. Vi` the^' lo^'i dda'nh da^'u ba(`ng so^' 1-9 cu?a VNI ra^'t pho^? tho^ng, trong cu~ng nhu+ ngoa`i nu+o+'c. Nhu+ng ga^`n dda^y, vo+'i nhu+~ng pha't trie^?n cu?a ca'c nho'm tin ho.c kha'c, lo^'i dda'nh na^`y dda~ da^`n da^`n ma^'t ve? pho^? tho^ng. Trong nu+o+'c, nha^'t la` ngoa`i Ba('c, ho. dda~ chuye^?n sang lo^'i dda'nh kie^?u Telex. O+? ha?i ngoa.i, ca'c anh chi. em tre^n Internet dda~ du`ng lo^'i VIQR. Ngay ca? ddo^'i vo+'i ca'c du ho.c sinh tu+` VN sang U'c du ho.c, khi to^i tri`nh ba`y cho ho. ve^` ca'ch dda'nh theo kie^?u VIQR, ho. ra^'t thi'ch va` dda~ chuye^?n sang lo^'i dda'nh da^'u na^`y\. Vi` no' mo^ pho?ng ca'c da.ng da^'u cu?a chu+~ Vie^.t, ddo^`ng tho+`i cu~ng tie^.n lo+.i trong vie^.c gu+?i thu+ email, vo^'n va^~n co`n du+.a tre^n he^. 7-bit ASCII\.

Cho ra(`ng lo^'i bo? da^'u tru+o+'c, sau gi` cu~ng ddu+o+.c trong VNI Ta^n Ky` la` mo+'i la., thi` cu~ng qua' dda'ng. Ne^n bie^'t ra(`ng chu+'c na(ng na^`y dda~ ddu+o+.c pha't trie^?n tu+` la^u trong nhu kie^.n BKED (ra^'t tho^ng du.ng o+? mie^`n Ba('c VN) , va` to^i dda~ tu+`ng dde^` nghi. tre^n die^~n dda`n Internet. Tie^'c ra(`ng ca'c nho'm Viet-Std va` VPS va^~n chu+a khai trie^?n chu+'c na(ng na^`y, ma` chi? co' VNI la` la`m ddu+o+.c. To^i xin co' lo+`i khen ngo+.i dde^'n ca'c anh em VNI\. Vi` dda^y la` mo^.t chu+'c na(ng he^'t su+'c ca^`n thie^'t, ta.o de^~ da`ng va` tie^.n lo+.i cho ngu+o+`i su+? du.ng.

Co`n va^'n dde^` tho^'ng nha^'t lo^'i vie^'t "qui/quy", "ho'a/hoa'", "thu?y/thuy?" thi` VN hie^.n nay dda~ co' qui ddi.nh ve^` vie^.c na^`y, du` ra(`ng kho^ng ba('t buo^.c nhu+ng da^`n da^`n nhu+~ng ngu+o+`i trong nu+o+'c se~ tho^'ng nha^'t theo qui ddi.nh mo+'i\. Chi? co' co^.ng ddo^`ng VN o+? ha?i ngoa.i, du` co' ra^'t nhie^`u nha^n ta`i, nhu+ng va^~n chu+a co' the^? ngo^`i la.i vo+'i nhau dde^? tho^'ng nha^'t cho mo^.t lo^'i vie^'t chung.

3. TIE^U CHUA^?N

Tu+` ddo' ddu+a dde^'n va^'n dde^` mo^.t tie^u chua^?n tho^'ng nha^'t cho chu+~ Vie^.t. To^i ra^'t tho^ng ca?m va` ta'n tha`nh ca'c y' kie^'n cu?a ta'c gia? ve^` va^'n dde^` na^`y\. To^i dda~ nhie^`u la^`n tri`nh ba`y ca'c quan ta^m va` u+u tu+ cu?a to^i tre^n nhie^`u die^~n dda`n. Ta ha~y thu+? tu+o+?ng tu+o+.ng trong va`i na(m to+'i, khi co^ng nghe^. tin ho.c pha't trie^?n ro^.ng ra~i o+? VN, vie^.c qua?n ly' ca'c va(n ba?n, ho^` so+ ba(`ng tie^'ng Vie^.t cho 70 trie^.u ngu+o+`i, 50 ti?nh, ma` kho^ng co' mo^.t tie^u chua^?n tho^'ng nha^'t dde^? xu+? ly' ky' tu+. Vie^.t thi` se~ ra('c ro^'i, phi' pha.m thi` gio+`, to^'n hao co^ng su+'c dde^'n mu+'c ddo^. na`o!

Thu+.c te^' ma` no'i, kho^ng co' mo^.t tie^u chua^?n na`o la` toa`n ha?o, toa`n bi'ch ca?. Ma` chi? co' ca'c qui ddi.nh chung, ca'c giao u+o+'c chung. DDa^y kho^ng pha?i chi? a'p du.ng cho bo^. chu+~ VN, ma` co`n a'p du.ng cho ca'c bo^. chu+~ kha'c. VN (Ha` No^.i) dda~ ra mo^.t tie^u chua^?n chung (bo^. TCVN). Du` chu+a co' ti'nh ca'ch bo' buo^.c, nhu+ng da^`n da^`n se~ ddu+o+.c ca'c co+ quan, to^? chu+'c tin ho.c trong nu+o+'c su+? du.ng. Vo+'i 70 trie^.u da^n va` so^' lu+o+.ng chuye^n vie^n ddie^.n toa'n nga`y ca`ng gia ta(ng, du` bo^. chua^?n TCVN kho^ng hoa`n ha?o, da^`n da^`n bo^. chua^?n na^`y se~ tro+? tha`nh mo^.t bo^. chua^?n pho^? tho^ng trong ca? nu+o+'c, va` se~ co' mo^.t the^' ddu+'ng ma.nh tre^n quo^'c te^'. Tre^n thu+.c te^', bo^. chua^?n TCVN dda~ ddu+o+.c nhie^`u co+ quan quo^'c te^' va` ca'c to^? chu+'c nghie^n cu+'u xem nhu+ la` bo^. chua^?n chi'nh thu+'c cu?a chu+~ Vie^.t trong ddie^.n toa'n. Thi' du. ddie^?n hi`nh la` ta.i U'c, vo+' ca'c trao ddo^?i tho^ng tin va` ho+.p ta'c kinh te^' thu+o+ng ma.i nga`y ca`ng gia ta(ng, ca'c va(n kie^.n ta`i lie^.u Vie^.t ngu+~ da.ng ddie^.n tu+? du`ng chua^?n TCVN nga`y ca`ng nhie^`u va` hie^.n ddang co' nhu ca^`u du`ng ca'c nhu kie^.n sa?n xua^'t ta.i VN dde^? xu+? ly' ca'c ta`i lie^.u na^`y, vi` ca'c nhu kie^.n sa?n xua^'t o+? ha?i ngoa.i kho^ng co' chu+'c na(ng hoa'n chuye^?n da.ng TCVN.

4. THU+O+NG MA.I VA` PHI THU+O+NG MA.I

Anh Va(n Ha?I Ly' cu~ng co' dde^` ca^.p dde^'n va^'n dde^` giao tie^'p va` phu.c vu. kha'ch ha`ng. Ca^`n ne^n bie^'t ra(`ng VNI la` mo^.t co^ng ty thu+o+ng ma.i, nhu+ng Viet-Std va` VPS la` ca'c nho'm thie^.n nguye^.n, phi thu+o+ng ma.i\. Mu.c ddi'ch cu?a nho'm Viet-Std la` ta.o mo^.t tie^u chua^?n chung cho chu+~ Vie^.t, la`m co+ so+? cho ca'c co^ng ty thu+o+ng ma.i kha'c pha't trie^?n ca'c nhu kie^.n u+'ng du.ng cho gio+'i tie^u thu.. Ca'c anh em chuye^n gia ddo' dda~ la`m ca'c co^ng ta'c ngoa`i gio+` la`m vie^.c chi'nh, va` dda~ bo? nhie^`u co^ng su+'c ta.o ra nhie^`u bo^. nhu kie^.n mie^~n phi' co' gia' tri.. Nho'm ddie^.n toa'n cu?a VPS cu~ng the^', dde^? phu.c vu. ca'c nhu ca^`u su+? du.ng tie^'ng Vie^.t va` xu+? ly' va(n ba?n cu?a ho^.i vie^n, ma` kho^ng ddo`i ho?i mo^.t quye^`n lo+.i thu+o+ng ma.i na`o ca?. Vi` the^' ma` nhu kie^.n cu?a Viet-Std va` VPS kho^ng co' ke`m theo ca'c ca^?m nang hu+o+'ng da^~n chi tie^'t, tri`nh ba`y my~ thua^.t nhu+ cu?a co^ng ty thu+o+ng ma.i VNI, va` cu~ng kho^ng co' ca'c di.ch vu. hu+o+'ng da^~n va` phu. tro+. nhu+ VNI\.

To^i dda~ du`ng qua ca? 2 bo^. nhu kie^.n VPS va` Viet-Std cho ba'o Pho^? Tho^ng, Ta^y U'c, trong 12 tha'ng qua va` chu'ng to^i kho^ng ga(.p tro+? nga.i dda'ng ke^? na`o ca?. Chu'ng to^i du`ng WinWord (2.0c va` 6.0a), CorelDraw 4.0b, MS-Publisher vo+'i ta^'t ca? ca'c bo^. pho^ng cung ca^'p mie^~n phi' cu?a 2 nho'm na^`y\. Di~ nhie^n lu'c ban dda^`y cu~ng co' va`i kho' kha(n nho? vi` chu+a quen su+? du.ng, nhu+ng da^`n da^`n thi` cu~ng kha('c phu.c ddu+o+.c ca?. Ne^'u ca'c ba.n co' phu+o+ng tie^.n du`ng email, thi` ca'c ba.n co' the^? gu+?i ca'c tha('c ma('c dde^'n ca'c die^~n dda`n to^? chu+'c bo+?i 2 nho'm na^`y, va` se~ ddu+o+.c ho. gia?i dda'p va` giu'p ddo+~ tho?a dda'ng.

Chu'ng to^i thi'ch du`ng nhu kie^.n VPS ho+n vi` co' ke`m theo bo^. bie^n soa.n VNEdit trong Windows, co' ke`m chu+'c na(ng soa't lo^~i chi'nh ta?, va` hoa'n chuye^?n ca'c da.ng bo^. chu+~ Vie^.t (ngoa.i tru+` da.ng TCVN) . Tho^ng thu+o+`ng, chu'ng to^i dda'nh ca'c ba?n tha?o trong VNEdit, ra` soa't lo^~i chi'nh ta?, ro^`i ddem va`o WinWord hoa(.c Publisher dde^? sa('p xe^'p, bo^' tri' ba`i vo+?. Chu'ng to^i du`ng CorelDraw va` WordArt (ke`m theo vo+'i WinWord) dde^? tri`nh ba`y ca'c trang qua?ng ca'o, vo+'i ca'c bo^. pho^ng trang tri' cu?a VPS. Ma'y PC cu?a chu'ng to^i chi? la` ca'c loa.i 386SX va` 486SX tho^ng thu+o+`ng, vo+'i 4 MB RAM, du` ho+i cha^.m, nhu+ng cu~ng dda~ ddu+o+.c ddie^`u ha`nh vo+'i hie^.u qua? cao\. Ta'c gia? co' ve? chu? quan khi dde^` cao qua' dda'ng vie^.c su+? du.ng WordPerfect va` Ventura\. Hie^.n nay, i't ra la` ta.i U'c, WinWord (cho xu+? ly' va(n ba?n) va` PageMaker (cho che^' ba?n) ddu+o+.c su+? du.ng nhie^`u ho+n, va` ca'c bo^. pho^ng cu?a VPS va` Viet-Std ho`a nha^.p de^~ da`ng vo+'i ca'c nhu kie^.n na^`y\.

To^i kho^ng hie^?u la` ta'c gia? dda~ co' tie^'p xu'c nhie^`u vo+'i ca'c nho'm Viet-Std va` VPS hay kho^ng, hay chi? qua loa so+ bo^. nhu+ trong ba`i vie^'t. Rie^ng to^i, to^i dda~ gu+?i thu+ lie^n la.c tru+.c tie^'p vo+'i ca? 2 nho'm na^`y, va` ddu+o+.c ho. gu+?i ta(.ng ngay ca'c bo^. nhu kie^.n ma` kho^ng ddo`i ho?i hay dda(.t ddie^`u kie^.n gi` ca?. Di~ nhie^n la` theo le^. tho^ng thu+o+`ng, ta ne^n gu+?i tie^`n cho ho. dde^? tra? ca'c phi' to^?n cu+o+'c phi' bu+u ddie^.n va` sao che'p ca'c ddi~a me^`m, nhu+ng chi? la` ca'c mo'n tie^`n nho?, tu+o+ng tu+. nhu+ khi chu'ng ta dda(.t mua ca'c ddi~a me^`m du`ng chung (shareware) cu?a ca'c to^? chu+'c tin ho.c kha'c. Ne^'u ca'c ba.n co' phu+o+ng tie^.n email, thi` ca'c ba.n co' the^? tu+. truy ca^.p la^'y ca'c du+~ kie^.n na^`y trong nhie^`u kho lu+u tru+~ ddie^.n toa'n tre^n the^' gio+'i\.

To^i cu~ng co^ng nha^.n la` ca'c di.ch vu. ho^~ tro+. kha'ch ha`ng cu?a VNI ra^'t to^'t, ra^'t dda'ng khen ngo+.i\. To^i dda~ tu+`ng gu+?i mua nhu kie^.n cu?a VNI, va` dda~ tu+`ng go.i ddie^.n thoa.i, gu+?i fax dde^? xin giu'p ddo+~, va` anh Ho^` Tha`nh Vie^.t cu?a VNI ra^'t so^'t sa('ng va` nhie^.t ti`nh. Tha^.t ra, to^i cu~ng bie^'t la` ca'c anh em chuye^n gia cu?a VNI dda~ bo? ra nhie^`u co^ng su+'c dde^? hoa`n chi?nh ca'c bo^. nhu kie^.n cu?a ho., ma` tie^`n thu` lao ddem ve^` tu+` ca'c di.ch vu. ba'n nhu kie^.n thi` cu~ng cha(?ng la` bao\. Ho. va^~n la`m la` vi` ye^u nghe^`, va` thie^.n chi' phu.c vu. pha't trie^?n chu+~ Vie^.t ma` tho^i\. Ngay ca? ca'c nho'm chuye^n gia o+? VN cu~ng the^' (Seatic o+? Sa`i Go`n, va` BKED O+? Ha` No^.i). Ho. so^'ng ddu+o+.c la` nho+` ca'c hoa.t ddo^.ng ba'n ma'y, trang thie^'t bi., ho+.p ddo^`ng ba?o qua?n ma'y, cung ca^'p chu+o+ng tri`nh qua?n ly' du+~ lie^.u cho ca'c co^ng ty thu+o+ng ma.i, v.v... Chu+' co`n sa?n xua^'t nhu kie^.n tie^'ng Vie^.t chi? la` dde^? la`m cho+i, kho^ng co' lo+`i, vi` dda~ bi. sao che'p la^.u ra^'t nhie^`u\.

5. KE^'T LUA^.N

To^i nghi~ ra(`ng ta'c gia? ba`i vie^'t dda~ kho^ng pha^n bie^.t ro~ ra`ng giu+~a ca'c tie^u chua^?n bo^. ky' tu+. Vie^.t va` ca'c chu+'c na(ng cu?a ca'c bo^. nhu kie^.n du`ng ca'c bo^. ky' tu+. ddo'. Nhi`n chung thi` ca'c bo^. ky' tu+. na^`y dde^`u co' u+u va` khuye^'t ddie^?m, dde^`u la` ke^'t qua? cu?a ca'c nghie^n cu+'u sa^u ro^.ng dde^? co^' ga('ng dung hoa` ca'c nhu ca^`u chu+~ Vie^.t va` ca'c nhu ca^`u co+ ba?n kha'c khi sa('p xe^'p ca'c ma~ tu+. Vie^.t va`o trong bo^. chua^?n ASCII\. Ca'c chu+'c na(ng co+ ba?n cu?a ca'c bo^. nhu kie^.n sa?n xua^'t bo+?i VNI, Viet-Std va` VPS, ne^'u quen su+? du.ng, dde^`u phu.c vu. ddu+o+.c ca'c nhu ca^`u ca^`n ye^'u cu?a ngu+o+`i tie^u du`ng. Tuy nhie^n, ca'c chu+'c na(ng bo^? sung cu?a nhu kie^.n VNI va` cu?a ca'c co^ng ty thu+o+ng ma.i kha'c (SEATIC, BKED) la.i co' pha^`n do^`i da`o va` co' ke`m ca^?m nang tri`nh ba`y ro~ ra`ng ho+n, ta.o nhie^`u thua^.n lo+.i cho ngu+o+`i tie^u thu..

Nhi`n ve^` tu+o+ng lai, qua ca(.p ma('t cu?a mo^.t ngu+o+`i kho^ng chuye^n mo^n va` co' kie^'n thu+'c ddie^.n toa'n gio+'i ha.n, to^i tha^'y co' 2 bo^'i ca?nh. Bo^'i ca?nh thu+' nha^'t la` he^. 8-bit ASCII se~ co`n to^`n ta.i trong mo^.t tho+`i gian nu+~a, vo+'i ca'c bo^. ky' tu+. Vie^.t nhu+ hie^.n nay, va` se~ kho^ng co' the^m bo^. na`o nu+~a\. Vo+'i su+. giao tie^'p tho^ng tin trong nu+o+'c cu~ng nhu+ tre^n quo^'c te^ nga`y ca`ng gia ta(ng, bo^. chua^?n TCVN se~ pho^? tho^ng ho+n va` ddu+o+.c nhie^`u ngu+o+`i su+? du.ng ho+n, trong nu+o+'c cu~ng nhu+ ca'c co+ quan va` to^? chu+'c quo^'c te^'. Ca'c co^ng ty ddie^.n toa'n va` to^? chu+'c hu+~u quan da^`n da^`n se~ cha^'p nha^.n va` su+? du.ng bo^. chua^?n na^`y, vi` quye^`n lo+.i kinh te^' thu+o+ng ma.i, vi` ca'c nghi thu+'c bang giao quo^'c te^' vo^'n se~ co^ng nha^.n bo^. TCVN cu?a Ha` No^.i, va` vi` nhu ca^`u ca^`n pha?i tie^'p ca^.n vo+'i ca'c va(n kie^.n, du+~ lie^.u xua^'t pha't tu+` VN. Ca'c co^ng ty ddie^.n toa'n thu+o+ng ma.i, dde^? ca.nh tranh va` sinh to^`n, du` muo^'n du` kho^ng, se~ chuye^?n ddo^?i hoa(.c se~ ta.o ra ca'c chu+'c na(ng hoa'n chuye^?n dde^? giao die^.n vo+i bo^. chua^?n TCVN.

Bo^'i ca?nh thu+' hai la` vo+'i ca'c thie^'t bi. mo+'i va` he^. ddie^`u ha`nh mo+'i, bo^. chua^?n UNICODE du+.a tre^n ky' tu+. 16-bit se~ ddu+o+.c a'p du.ng ro^.ng ra~i\. Lu'c ddo' thi` chi? co`n 1 bo^. chua^?n VN duy nha^'t dda~ ddu+o+.c xa'c ddi.nh trong UNICODE\. Ma(.c du` cu~ng se~ co`n mo^.t va`i kho' kha(n vi` bo^. na^`y du`ng ca? da^'u ro+`i la^~n da^'u di'nh, nhu+ng to^i mong ra(`ng ca'c chuye^n gia tin ho.c Vie^.t Nam, trong nu+o+'c cu~ng nhu+ o+? ha?i ngoa.i, se~ ru't ti?a kinh nghie^.m trong ca'c kho' kha(n vu+`a qua, dde^? ma` co' the^? tho^'ng nha^'t vo+'i nhau, ta.o nhie^`u thua^.n lo+.i va` de^~ da`ng cho dda.i chu'ng trong vie^.c su+? du.ng chu+~ Vie^.t ba(`ng ddie^.n toa'n cho ca'c nhu ca^`u sinh hoa.t trong ddo+`i so^'ng ha(`ng nga`y\.

oOo

* Binh Anson, BE, ME, Ph.D. - Ky~ Su+ Tru+o+?ng, Quy Hoa.ch Qua?n Ly' Lu+u Vu+.c, Thu?y Cu.c Ta^y U'c.


Binh Anson, Ph.D.
anson@saigon.com

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Copyright © 1994 - 1997 by VACETS and Binh Anson

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