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"Everyday Engineering"

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Perth, Tha'ng 10, 1994.

So+ Lu+o+.c ve^` Nga`nh Co^ng Nghe^. Thu?y Lo+.i

Binh Anson *(Perth, Australia)

Nu+o+'c la` mo^.t ye^'u to^' ca^`n thie^'t cho mo.i phu+o+ng die^.n trong ddo+`i so^'ng ca' nha^n la^~n co^.ng ddo^`ng. Tuy nhie^n vi` nu+o+'c hie^.n die^.n mo.i no+i va` de^~ da`ng su+? ne^n ca'c co^.ng ddo^`ng co' nhu+~ng phu+o+ng tie^.n ca^'p nu+o+'c tin ca^.y va` ca'c nguo^`n gia?i tri' an la.c thu+o+`ng kho^ng chu' ve^` ta^`m mu+'c quan cu?a nguo^`n nu+o+'c. Chi? khi na`o ngu+o+`i ta pha?i ddo^'i pho' vo+'i na.n ha.n ha'n, lu~ lu.t, hoa(.c ca'c va^'n dde^` co' lie^n quan dde^'n nguo^`n nu+o+'c la`m gia'n ddoa.n cuo^.c so^'ng thi` mo.i ngu+o+`i mo+'i quan ta^m dde^'n gia' tri. va` su+'c pha' hoa.i cu?a nu+o+'c.

Co^ng nghe^. thu?y lo+.i, theo danh xu+ng cu?a no', la` mo^.t nga`nh co^ng nghe^. co' lie^n quan dde^'n vie^.c kha?o sa't, su+?, qua?n ly' va` ba?o ve^. nguo^`n nu+o+'c nhu+ la` mo^.t nguo^`n ta`i nguye^n thie^n nhie^n cho con ngu+o+`i\. Theo tie^'n tri`nh su+?, nga`nh co^ng nghe^. na^`y la` mo^.t chi nha'nh cu?a nga`nh co^ng cha'nh, tuy nhie^n hie^.n dda~ ddu+o+.c nhie^`u no+i xem nhu+ la` mo^.t nga`nh co^ng nghe^. rie^ng bie^.t, ngoa`i ca'c chuye^n dde^` co+ ba?n ve^` qui, thie^'t ke^', xa^y, va` ddie^`u ha`nh ca'c co^ng tri`nh co^ng co^.ng, co`n bao tru`m ca'c li~nh vu+.c kha'c co' lie^n quan dde^'n thu?y va(n, ho'a ho.c thu?y ti'nh, co^ng nghe^. bie^'n che^' ho'a ho.c, sinh ho.c, qua?n ly' ta`i nguye^n thie^n nhie^n, ba?o ve^. mo^i tru+o+`ng, pha^n ti'ch kinh te^', kha?o sa't ta'c ddo^.ng xa~ ho^.i, va` ca'c u+'ng ddie^.n toa'n.

Vie^.c a'p co^ng nghe^. thu?y lo+.i co' le~ dda~ ba('t nguo^`n tu+` tho+`i tie^`n su+? khi ma` nhu+~ng tie^`n nha^n na`o ddo' dda~ thu+.c hie^.n y' ddi.nh da^~n nu+o+'c tu+` ca'c do`ng cha?y thie^n nhie^n nha^.p va`o mo^.t do`ng nha^n ta.o, dde^? ddu+a nu+o+'c dde^'n no+i ca^`n tu+o+'i mu`a ma`ng. Co^ng tri`nh tu+o+'i tie^u to lo+'n dda^`u tie^n co' le~ la` do Mendes thu+.c hie^.n, dda^y la` vi. sa'ng la^.p trie^`u dda.i Ai Ca^.p dda^`u tie^n, va`o khoa?ng 3200 tru+o+'c Ta^y Ve^` sau co`n co' ca'c co^ng tri`nh kha'c o+? vu`ng DDi.a Trung Ha?i va` Ca^.n DDo^ng, cha(?ng ha.n nhu+ la` he^. tho^'ng da^~n nu+o+'c da`i 500 km ddem nu+o+'c ve^` La Ma~. Mo^.t co^ng tri`nh tu+o+'i tie^u tu+` na(m 250 tru+o+'c Ta^y, trong ti?nh Tu+' Xuye^n, Trung Hoa, va^~n co`n ddu+o+.c su+? nga`y ho^m nay\. Ngay ca? o+? My~ cha^u, ca'c phe^' ti'ch co`n la.i cu?a mo^.t he^. tho^'ng tu+o+'i tie^u ro^.ng lo+'n, do tho^? da^n Hohokam xa^y va`o khoa?ng na(m 1100, trong vu`ng Arizona la` ba(`ng chu+'ng cu?a ca'c hoa.t ddo^.ng kinh te^' hu+ng thi.nh va`o tho+`i ddo'. O+? VN, ca'c he^. tho^'ng dde^ ddie^`u ro^.ng lo+'n o+? mie^`n Ba('c do.c theo so^ng Ho^`ng dda~ co' ma(.t tu+` nhie^`u the^' ky? nay, va` va^~n ddu+o+.c du`ng cho^'ng lu~ lu.t, ba?o ve^. vu`ng dda^'t tha^'p nhu+ng phi` nhie^u\. Ca'c he^. tho^'ng ke^nh dda`o phu+'c ta.p o+? mie^`n Nam thu+.c hie^.n tu+` the^' ky? 18, du+o+'i trie^`u Nguye^~n, va^~n ddang ddu+o+.c pha't trie^?n va` su+?a ddo^?i cho vie^.c da^~n thu?y nha^.p ddie^`n va` di chuye^?n, cha(`ng chi.t trong vu`ng cha^u tho^? ha. lu+u so^ng Me^ Ko^ng, vu+.a tho'c chi'nh cho ca? nu+o+'c.

No^~ lu+.c dda^`u tie^n dde^? he^. tho^'ng ho'a ca'c kie^'n thu+'c co^ng nghe^. la` vie^.c tha`nh la^.p tru+o+`ng Cao DDa(?ng Co^ng Cha'nh (Ca^`u DDu+o+`ng) o+? Paris na(m 1760. Ha^`u nhu+ ca'c quan nie^.m co+ ba?n dde^? ti'nh toa'n va` thie^'t ke^' dda^.p, he^. tho^'ng tu+o+'i, lo.c nu+o+'c va` lu+o+'i ca^'p nu+o+'c dde^`u ba('t nguo^`n tu+` ca'c ba`i vie^'t va` ba'o ca'o pha't ha`nh ta.i vie^.n na^`y\. Ke^? tu+` ddo', mo^.t kho ta`ng ly' thuye^'t va` phu+o+ng a'n dda~ ddu+o+.c pha't trie^?n, nha^'t la` tu+` khi co' su+. ho^.i nha^.p vo+'i ca'c nga`nh pha^n ti'ch tho^'ng ke^, pha't trie^?n mo^ hi`nh so^' ho.c va` ddie^.n toa'n, ca'c ca?i tie^'n ve^` vie^.c thu tha^.p va` pha^n gia?i du+~ kie^.n thu+.c ddi.a, va` su+. ho^.i nha^.p vo+'i ca'c nga`nh phi co^ng nghe^. kha'c (xa~ ho^.i ho.c, ho'a ho.c, dda'nh gia' ta'c ddo^.ng mo^i tru+o+`ng va` sinh tha'i, qua?n ly' ta`i nguye^n thie^n nhie^n, vie^~n tha'm, v.v...).

Ngoa`i vie^.c xa^y dda^.p, he^. tho^'ng tu+o+'i, cho^'ng lu.t, thoa't nu+o+'c, xu+? ly' nu+o+'c du`ng va` nu+o+'c tha?i, ngu+o+`i ky~ su+ thu?y lo+.i cu~ng pha?i bie^'t ca'c phu+o+ng die^.n ddi.nh va` ddi.nh ti'nh cu?a nu+o+'c. Ngu+o+`i a^'y pha?i co' ca'c tri thu+'c co+ ba?n ve^` su+. hie^.n die^.n va` ddi.nh cu?a ca'c giai ddoa.n nguo^`n nu+o+'c trong ca'c tha'i thie^n nhie^n la^~n nha^n ta.o\. Ca'c ha^.u qua? bo+?i hoa.t ddo^.ng con ngu+o+`i - ke^? ca? o^ nhie^~m tu+` ky~ nghe^. ho'a va` ddo^ thi. ho'a - tre^n pha^?m cha^'t nguo^`n nu+o+'c trong ao ho^` va` do`ng cha?y ca^`n pha?i ddu+o+.c tho^ng hie^?u va` tha^?m ddi.nh. Khi mu+'c so^'ng gia ta(ng - va` gia ta(ng nha^.n thu+'c ve^` he^. sinh tha'i ddi.a ca^`u, ca'c nhu ca^`u hie^.n nay kho^ng co`n gio+'i ha.n trong co^ng ta'c cung ca^'p nu+o+'c uo^'ng hoa(.c sa?n xua^'t thu?y ddie^.n, ma` lan ro^.ng dde^'n vie^.c su+? nguo^`n nu+o+'c dde^? gia?i tri', va` dde^? ba?o ve^. va` ba?o to^`n ca'c loa.i thu+.c va^.t va` ddo^.ng va^.t ddi.a phu+o+ng.

Vi` nguo^`n nu+o+'c ddu+o+.c xem nhu+ la` mo^.t trong ca'c nguo^`n ta`i nguye^n thie^n nhie^n quan cho loa`i ngu+o+`i, quan nie^.m ga(.t ha'i - chu+' kho^ng pha?i chi? khai tha'c - nguo^`n na^`y ddang ddu+o+.c co^? vo~. Vie^.c na^`y dda~ ddem la.i ca'c chie^`u hu+o+'ng mo+'i cho nga`nh co^ng nghe^. thu?y lo+.i, ca'c y' tu+o+?ng co' lie^n quan dde^'n vie^.c ta'i hoa`n, ta'i su+?, va` ta'i sinh nguo^`n nu+o+'c trong mo^.t nguye^n ta('c bao qua't ho+n ve^` co^ng ta'c pha't trie^?n vu+~ng be^`n ca'c nguo^`n ta`i nguye^n.


* Binh Anson, BE, ME, Ph.D. - Ky~ Su+ Tru+o+?ng, Quy Qua?n Ly' Lu+u Vu+.c, Thu?y Cu.c Ta^y U'c.

Binh Anson, Ph.D.

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