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AUTOMATICALLY MEDICATED INSTRUMENT FOR EYEDROPS
Vo Van Toi*, Ph.D., P.A. Grounauer**, M.D, and C. Weder*
* Tufts University
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department
Biomedical Engineering Laboratory
Medford, MA 02155 USA
E-Mail: vovantoi@ee.tufts.edu
** Hopital Ophtalmique Universitaire de Lausanne, Switzerland.

Abstract

We herein describe an eyedrop delivery device which can be mounted on any eyeglass frame and ejects eyedrop into a patient's eyes without requiring major interaction from the patient. Monitored by a microcomputer this device administers microdroplets of medication automatically at a programmable rate or on demand. It is useful for patients with dry eyes or for those who need constant or long term treatment.



CHALLENGES IN MACROMOLECULES STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION
Nguyen-huu Xuong
Department of Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093-0359 USA
Phone (619) 534-2501, Fax (619) 534-6174
E-Mail: nxuong@ucsd.edu

Abstract
Macromolecular crystallography, i.e. the determination of the study of three-dimensional structure of proteins and DNA and RNA molecules, is situated at the interface of Physics, Biology and Medicine. One of my early contributions to this field was the adaptation of the "Multiwire Proportional Chamber" from high energy physics to a "Multiwire X-ray Area Detector." A high speed data collection system using these detectors revolutionized the way one collects data for protein crystallography making it faster, simpler and reducing the required number of protein crystals by an order of magnitude. These systems are still in use in many laboratories and biotech companies all over the world. Using a similar system my group has collaborated with other scientists to solve structures for proteins involved in cancer, AIDS and in signal transduction process (protein kinases). Recently my group has been awarded a generous grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop a "Smart Pixel Array Detector" for protein crystallography that will be a thousand times faster than the old Multiwire detector. When finished, this detector will allow us to detect conformational changes of a protein in a period as short as ten milliseconds and therefore understand its biological function much better.


EXTENDED RENAL PRESERVATION WITH UW SOLUTION
Dai D. Nghiem, Shyuan Hsia, James Schlosser and Joseph Lucke
Department of Surgery and Laboratory Medicine
Allegheny General Hospital and Allegheny-Singer Research Institute
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Abstract



ENDOSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF BILIARY AND PANCREATIC DISEASES IN THE 1990'S
Loc T. Le, M.D.

Abstract
Advanced medical technologies in the 1990's have changed the way medical care is delivered in the United States and other industrialized countries. Today, physicians are able to effectively perform many complex and sophisticated procedures on their patients in an easy, safe, less invasive, and accurate fashion. Among the most important advances in these innovative medical technologies is the flexible fiberoptic and videoendoscopic technology. It revolutionalizes the conventional approaches to cardiovascular, genitourinary, oncological, and gastrointestinal diseases. This paper provides an overview of the application of endoscopic technology to the pancreatico-biliary system (the bile duct, gallblader, liver, and pancreas) as it is applied in the 1990's. It broadly explains the endoscopic technology and briefly discusses the applications to specific diseases of the liver and pancreas.


MICRODOSIMETRY STUDY OF 10B (n,a)7 Li REACTION IN CELLS USING MONTE CARLO'S SIMULATION
Tien Nguyen
Nguyen Technology and Consultant
Vancouver, WA 98683

Abstract
A Monte Carlo simulation has been employed to calculate and compare the absorbed dose and effective dose in the modeled cells when 10B is localized in 5 regions: cell nucleus, nuclear membrance, cytoplasm, cell membrance, and extracellular. The simulation considers 2 independent target regions: nucleus and whole cell. Three factors have been found to affect the doses in the target regions of modeled cells of the same size: number of 10B disintegrations in the source region, the distribution of hit sizes in the target region, and the model geometry. An effectiveness factor (EF) concept has been defined, combining the 3 mentioned factors, to be used as a scale to weigh the effect of 10B localized in the 5 source regions. Results of a simulation using the subcellular distribution of 5 different boron compounds, BSH, BSSB, BOPP, and VCDP, is also presented.


NEW CONCEPTS IN THORACIC ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
Si M. Pham, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Surgery
Director of Adult Heart Transplant Service
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Suite C-700 PUH
200 Lothrop Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA

Abstract
The history of transplantation has been compressed, for the most part, into the past century. Tremendous progress has occurred, and the concept of replacing a defective organ or cell with a functioning graft has become a clinical reality. The success of this field is mainly due to the development of nonspecific immunosuppressive agents to prevent rejection. However, these agents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, these agents are far from perfect in preventing rejection. As a result, rejection is still a major cause of graft loss and death. Donor-specific transplantation tolerance, a state in which the host permanently accept the transplanted graft without immunosuppression so that the host is still immunocompetence to respond to normal challenges, seems to be an obvious solution to the current limitations in clinical elusive goal. To date, donor cell chimerism appears to associate strongly with long term graft acceptance, and in some cases, without the need for continuation of immunosuppression. With recent advances and renewed interests in this field, achieving donor-specific transplantation tolerance, which has remained elusive during the last five decades, is approaching in the horizon.


VORTEX NEBULIZER: A MEDICAL APPLICATION OF CONFINED VORTEX FLOW PHENOMENA
Ngo Dinh Thinh, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair
Department of Mechanical Engineering
California State University, Sacramento
Sacramento, CA 95819-6031 USA
E-Mail: ngothinh@csus.edu

Abstract
This paper describes the design an development of a vortex nebulizer for use with new and innovative medical applications. The unique and beneficial features of the vortex phenomena in conjunction with the liquid atomizing process are demonstrated.